Treatment-dependent androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancer exploit multiple mechanisms to evade therapy.

@article{Steinkamp2009TreatmentdependentAR,
  title={Treatment-dependent androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancer exploit multiple mechanisms to evade therapy.},
  author={Mara P. Steinkamp and Orla A O'Mahony and Michele A Brogley and Haniya Rehman and Elizabeth LaPens{\'e}e and Saravana Dhanasekaran and Matthias D. Hofer and Rainer Kuefer and Arul M. Chinnaiyan and Mark A. Rubin and Kenneth J. Pienta and Diane M. Robins},
  journal={Cancer research},
  year={2009},
  volume={69 10},
  pages={4434-42}
}
Mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) that enable activation by antiandrogens occur in hormone-refractory prostate cancer, suggesting that mutant ARs are selected by treatment. To validate this hypothesis, we compared AR variants in metastases obtained by rapid autopsy of patients treated with flutamide or bicalutamide, or by excision of lymph node metastases from hormone-naïve patients. AR mutations occurred at low levels in all specimens, reflecting genetic heterogeneity of prostate cancer… CONTINUE READING
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