Travel at low energetic cost by swimming and wave-riding bottlenose dolphins

@article{Williams1992TravelAL,
  title={Travel at low energetic cost by swimming and wave-riding bottlenose dolphins},
  author={Thomas M. Williams and William A. Friedl and Mitchell L Fong and R. M. Yamada and Pierre Sedivy and Jeffrey E. Haun},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1992},
  volume={355},
  pages={821-823}
}
OVER the past 50 years there has been much speculation about the energetic cost of swimming and wave-riding by dolphins1–11. When aligned properly in front of the bow of moving ships1–3, in the stern wake of small boats4,5, on wind waves6, and even in the wake of larger cetaceans7–9, the animals appear to move effortlessly through the water without the benefit of propulsive strokes by the flukes. Theoretically, body streamlining as well as other anatomical and behavioural adaptations contribute… 
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