Traumatic stress and gender differences in relationship to substance abuse, mental health, physical health, and HIV risk behavior in a sample of adolescents enrolled in drug treatment.


Research on traumatic stress (TS) among adolescent substance users is limited, with research indicating that not all adolescents who experience trauma are substance users and not all adolescent substance users report symptoms of TS. In the general adolescent population, research on TS symptoms indicates gender differences, with more females reporting… (More)