Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula presenting as massive epistaxis.

@article{Wyrick2013TraumaticCF,
  title={Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula presenting as massive epistaxis.},
  author={Deidre L. Wyrick and Samuel D. Smith and Melvin S. Dassinger},
  journal={Journal of pediatric surgery},
  year={2013},
  volume={48 4},
  pages={883-6}
}
Carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae (CCF) are a rare complication with the potential for great morbidity including intracranial hemorrhage, blindness, cranial nerve palsy and stroke. Traumatic CCF are the most common type of CCF. Here we discuss a patient who sustained blunt head trauma and had substantial epistaxis, requiring massive transfusion, intraoperatively due to unrecognized CCF.