Traumatic Loss: Conceptual and Empirical Links Between Trauma and Bereavement

  title={Traumatic Loss: Conceptual and Empirical Links Between Trauma and Bereavement},
  author={Bonnie L. Green},
  journal={Journal of Personal and Interpersonal Loss},
  pages={1 - 17}
  • B. Green
  • Published 1 January 2000
  • Psychology, Sociology
  • Journal of Personal and Interpersonal Loss
Abstract This article focuses on conceptual issues and empirical studies regarding the topic of traumatic loss (i.e., loss that occurs suddenly and under violent circumstances) as a method for linking the field of trauma, and that of grief and bereavement. Several definitions of trauma are presented that include the concept of loss, and additional concepts are suggested that may be helpful in thinking about the two areas together. Also, modes of death associated with poor recovery are noted… 


A more integrated and focused view of traumatic grief, its predictors, and future directions for the integrative study of trauma and loss outcomes are offered.


It is argued that the perspective of the relation to the deceased is an insufficiently acknowledged source of traumatic disruption following bereavement and the importance of the relational aspects in this case of trauma supports the use of the Two-Track Model of Bereavement.

Intersections Between Grief and Trauma: Toward an Empirically Based Model for Treating Traumatic Grief

Two divergent areas of study have focused on the experiences of grief, i.e., bereavement, and on trauma and its aftermath. The grief literature has its foundations in psychodynamic and relational

Bereavement Research and Theory: Retrospective and Prospective

Recent research on the phenomena and manifestations of bereavement, as represented in this ABS special issue, has contributed to the understanding of two central, long-standing questions: How do

Indirect Trauma: Implications for Self-Care, Supervision, the Organization, and the Academic Institution

In this article, the nature of what is referred to in this article as indirect trauma, or the ways in which clinicians are affected by their work with survivors of childhood trauma, is examined.

Separation and Traumatic Distress in Prolonged Grief: The Role of Cause of Death and Relationship to the Deceased

A distinction has been drawn between symptoms of separation distress (e.g., yearning/longing for the lost relationship) and traumatic distress (e.g., numbness, anger/bitterness) in prolonged grief

Traumatic Bereavements: Rebalancing the Relationship to the Deceased and the Death Story Using the Two-Track Model of Bereavement

A case study of assessment and intervention following traumatic bereavement due to suicide illustrates how attention to each of these factors in the TTMB can facilitate change.

Mediating Grief: Postmortem Ritualization After Child Death

The purpose of this study is to better understand the benefits of ritualization for bereaved parents and the factors that influence ritualization. Through phenomenological analyses of 19 in-depth

Traumatic Bereavement and Mindfulness: A Preliminary Study of Mental Health Outcomes Using the ATTEND Model

This article presents a quasi-experimental study of a mindfulness-based intervention for traumatically bereaved individuals using a single group with pre-test and post-test design. The intervention

An Autoethnographic Inquiry Into the Experience of Grief After Traumatic Loss

This research is an inquiry into the experience of losing a loved one to murder. The topic is explored and expressed through the lens of autoethnography. The author explores and documents the process



Bereavement after homicide: a synergism of trauma and loss.

For those who have lost a family member through homicide, recognition of a relatively specific pattern of dysfunctional responses of grief and trauma would promote early identification and psychiatric referral.

Post traumatic stress symptoms in the first years of conjugal bereavement

Bereavement is generally regarded as one of the most stressful events one can encounter. Yet, bereavement research and the study of post-traumatic stress seem to be mainly developing along separate

Shattered Assumptions: Towards a New Psychology of Trauma

This book investigates the psychology of victimization. It shows how fundamental assumptions about the world's meaningfulness and benevolence are shattered by traumatic events, and how victims become

Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications

This paper discusses research findings and their implications regarding children's responses to community violence. It outlines (1) theory and findings, (2) early intervention and psychological first

Hypnotherapy for traumatic grief: janetian and modern approaches integrated.

Pierre Janet provided a remarkably modern conceptual basis for diagnosis and treatment based on a dissociation model and his approach is combined with contemporary innovations to present a systematic and integrated account of hypnotherapy for traumatic grief.

A dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder.

A cognitive theory of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is proposed that assumes traumas experienced after early childhood give rise to 2 sorts of memory, 1 verbally accessible and 1 automatically

Traumatic stress: A theory based on rapid loss of resources

Applied Hobfoll's (1988; 1989) Conservation of Resources (COR) stress theory to the instance of traumatic stress. COR theory posits that stress occurs when resources are threatened, when resources

Understanding the Traumatized Self

When we gather as an intellectual and moral community in connection with our concern about traumatic events and post-traumatic responses, we seek to have good emerge from the bad. Although I feel

Changes in grief and mental health of bereaved spouses of older suicides.

Comparisons are made of the impact of a suicide death on the surviving spouse (55 years and older) with that of a natural death on spouse survivors and a married nonbereaved control group over a

Risk Factors in Bereavement Outcome

Studies indicate that many factors that impinge on bereaved individuals can cause an elevated health risk. These include sudden unexpected death, lack of social support, concurrent crises, ambivalent