Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with a slit-shaped femtosecond laser beam

  title={Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with a slit-shaped femtosecond laser beam},
  author={Yang Liao and Jia Qi and Peng Wang and Wei Chu and Zhaohui Wang and Lingling Qiao and Ya Cheng},
  journal={Scientific Reports},
We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension as small as ~4 μm. 

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