Most transportation policy, analysis, and technology focus on urban transportation. However, nearly 50 million Americans live in rural areas—open country and settlements with fewer than 2,500 residents—spread out in 2,303 non-metropolitan counties across four-fifths of the land area. During the 1990s, millions of Americans moved to non-metro areas, contributing to a 10 percent increase in small urban and rural communities. With the continuing “metropolitization” of the country, rural transportation issues take on special significance. In the sections that follow, some of the key features of rural transportation are briefly described in three areas—social needs, economic development, and quality-of-life. The promising strategies for responding effectively to support economic and community development and provide basic mobility are noted, including potential technology and systems applications. Key policy and research issues are then outlined.