Transmural pressure of epidural veins in the thoracic and lumbar spine of pigs.

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the transmural pressure gradient of epidural veins located within the spinal column and to investigate the effects of increased intra-abdominal and intrathoracic pressure on this gradient. METHODS Fourteen pigs were sedated with ketamine and anesthetized with halothane. Ventilation was controlled after… (More)