Transmission through air as a possible route of exposure for MRSA

@article{Bos2016TransmissionTA,
  title={Transmission through air as a possible route of exposure for MRSA},
  author={Marian E. H. Bos and Koen M. Verstappen and Brigitte A. G. L. van Cleef and Wietske Dohmen and Alejandro Dorado-Garc{\'i}a and Haitske Graveland and Birgitta Duim and Jaap A. Wagenaar and Jan A.J.W. Kluytmans and Dick J.J. Heederik},
  journal={Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology},
  year={2016},
  volume={26},
  pages={263-269}
}
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is highly prevalent in pigs and veal calves. The environment and air in pig and veal calf barns is often contaminated with LA-MRSA, and can act as a transmission source for humans. This study explores exposure–response relationships between sequence type 398 (ST398) MRSA air exposure level and nasal ST398 MRSA carriage in people working and/or living on farms. Samples and data were used from three longitudinal field… 
Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to Human Volunteers Visiting a Swine Farm
TLDR
Investigation of the frequency and duration of MRSA carriage in human volunteers after a short-term exposure in a swine farm showed that, overall, 94% of the volunteers acquired MRSA during the farm visit, and the MRSA load in the nose was highly correlated to the amount ofMRSA in the air.
MRSA in Pigs and the Environment as a Risk for Employees in Pig-Dense Areas of Sri Lanka
TLDR
In Sri Lanka the occupational risk for MRSA acquisition of people working with pigs in the described management systems is negligible, and the low MRSA prevalence at farm level might be due to the management of these farms—open air and low dust.
Livestock-Associated MRSA: The Impact on Humans
TLDR
Although most LA-MRSA (>80%) is resistant to several antibiotics, there are still sufficient treatment options and screening for MRSA colonization at hospital admittance is recommended for farmers and veterinarians with livestock contacts.
Survival of LA-MRSA in Dust from Swine Farms
TLDR
The presence of MRSA in airborne dust from five of six farms indicates that dust might be an important vehicle for transmission of LA-MRSA, and provides important knowledge to diminish spread from farm environments to other environments.
Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (LA-MRSA) CC398: An Emerging Infectious Disease
TLDR
Interventions that need to be done to prevent transmission and infection of LA-MRSA CC398 include screening, isolation of contacts, hand hygiene, cohorts, and decolonization as additional standard precautions.
Longitudinal study of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection in a cohort of swine veterinarians in the United States
TLDR
Exposure to pigs did not lead to prolonged colonization in most subjects, and the higher numbers of S. aureus in PC subjects suggests that unknown host factors may determine the likelihood of prolonged colonization by S.Aureus of livestock origin.
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is widespread in farmed mink (Neovison vison).
Air exposure as a possible route for ESBL in pig farmers☆
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 42 REFERENCES
Persistence of Livestock Associated MRSA CC398 in Humans Is Dependent on Intensity of Animal Contact
TLDR
The rapidly decreasing MRSA prevalence during absence of animal contact suggests that LA-MRSA is a poor persistent colonizer in most humans.
Occurrence of MRSA in air and housing environment of pig barns.
Livestock-associated MRSA ST398 carriage in pig slaughterhouse workers related to quantitative environmental exposure
TLDR
This study showed that working in the lairage area or scalding and dehairing area were the major risk factors for MRSA carriage in pig slaughterhouse workers, while the overall prevalence ofMRSA carriage is low.
Persistence of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Field Workers after Short-Term Occupational Exposure to Pigs and Veal Calves
TLDR
Examination of the prevalence and duration of MRSA acquisition after short-term intensive exposure to pigs or veal calves for persons not exposed to livestock on a daily basis finds that MRSA is frequently present after short term occupational exposure, but in most cases the strain is lost again after 24 h.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in people living and working in pig farms
TLDR
Working in pig stables with MRSA-positive pigs poses a high risk for acquiring MRSA, increasingly so when contact with live pigs is more intensive or long lasting.
Risk factors for persistence of livestock-associated MRSA and environmental exposure in veal calf farmers and their family members: an observational longitudinal study
TLDR
The hypothesis that environmental contamination with MRSA plays a role in the acquisition of MRSA in farmers and their household members is supported and suggests that other animal species should also be targeted to implement effective control strategies.
High prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage in slaughterhouse workers in contact with live pigs in The Netherlands
TLDR
A high prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage was found in pig-slaughterhouse workers, and working with live pigs is the most important risk factor.
Concentration of airborne Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA), total bacteria, and endotoxins in pig farms.
TLDR
Swiss pig farmers will have to tackle a new emerging occupational risk, which could also have a strong impact on public health, and the need to inform pig farmers about biological occupational risks is therefore crucial.
Dynamics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus carriage in pig farmers: a prospective cohort study.
  • B. V. van Cleef, B. van Benthem, J. Kluytmans
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  • 2014
TLDR
A very high prevalence of LA-MRSA carriage in pig farmers is described, reflecting extensive exposure during work, and the possible protective effects of MSSA carriage and of continuously wearing a facemask during work are identified.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...