Transmission of pathogens by Stomoxys flies (Diptera, Muscidae): a review

@inproceedings{Baldacchino2013TransmissionOP,
  title={Transmission of pathogens by Stomoxys flies (Diptera, Muscidae): a review},
  author={Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Baldacchino and Vithee Muenworn and Marc Desquesnes and Florian Desoli and Theeraphap Charoenviriyaphap and G{\'e}rard Duvallet},
  booktitle={Parasite},
  year={2013}
}
Stomoxys flies are mechanical vectors of pathogens present in the blood and skin of their animal hosts, especially livestock, but occasionally humans. In livestock, their direct effects are disturbance, skin lesions, reduction of food intake, stress, blood loss, and a global immunosuppressive effect. They also induce the gathering of animals for mutual protection; meanwhile they favor development of pathogens in the hosts and their transmission. Their indirect effect is the mechanical… CONTINUE READING

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