Transmission electron microscopy at the quantum limit

  title={Transmission electron microscopy at the quantum limit},
  author={Stewart A. Koppell and Yonatan Israel and Adam J. Bowman and Brannon B Klopfer and Mark A. Kasevich},
  journal={Applied Physics Letters},
A number of visions for a new generation of dose-efficient electron microscopes have been advanced. These proposals, while inspired by quantum principles, make little contact with the broader field of quantum metrology. We discuss a framework for calculating the amount of information carried by each electron. This makes it possible to evaluate the potential effectiveness of any particular microscope architecture relative to the quantum limit for information per dose. In the case of phase… 

Figures and Tables from this paper


A quantum mechanical scheme to reduce radiation damage in electron microscopy
We show that radiation damage to unstained biological specimens is not an intractable problem in electron microscopy. When a structural hypothesis of a specimen is available, quantum mechanical
Designs for a quantum electron microscope.
Noninvasive electron microscopy with interaction-free quantum measurements
We propose the use of interaction-free quantum measurements with electrons to eliminate sample damage in electron microscopy. This might allow noninvasive molecular-resolution imaging. We show the
Quantum-enhanced nonlinear microscopy.
By showing that the photodamage limit can be overcome, this work will enable order-of-magnitude improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio and the imaging speed.
Multi-pass transmission electron microscopy
Simulations are used to show that an electron microscope based on a multi-pass measurement protocol enables imaging of single proteins, without averaging structures over multiple images, and is expected to improve resolution and sensitivity for a range of electron microscopy imaging modalities, including, for example, scanning and spectroscopic techniques.
Entanglement-assisted electron microscopy based on a flux qubit
A notorious problem in high-resolution biological electron microscopy is radiation damage caused by probe electrons. Hence, acquisition of data with minimal number of electrons is of critical
Supersensitive polarization microscopy using NOON states of light.
A quantum polarized light microscope using entangled NOON states with N=2 and N=3 is shown to provide phase supersensitivity beyond the standard quantum limit and improved phase images with sensitivity close to the Heisenberg limit are shown.
Interaction-Free Measurement with Electrons.
This work experimentally demonstrates interaction-free measurements with electrons using a novel electron Mach-Zehnder interferometer constructed in a conventional transmission electron microscope and achieves high contrast in discrete output detectors, tunable alignment with independently movable beam splitters, and scanning capabilities for imaging.