Transmission, acute HIV-1 infection and the quest for strategies to prevent infection

  title={Transmission, acute HIV-1 infection and the quest for strategies to prevent infection},
  author={Melissa A Pope and Ashley T. Haase},
  journal={Nature Medicine},
By the acute stage of HIV-1 infection, the immune system already faces daunting challenges. Research on mucosal barriers and the events immediately after heterosexual transmission that precede this acute stage could facilitate the development of effective microbicides and vaccines. 

[Mechanism for HIV invasion via skin or mucosa].

This work focuses on the recent advances regarding the cellular events that may occur during heterosexual transmission of HIV, and CD4- and CCR5-mediated infection of LC plays a crucial role in virus dissemination.

HIV and AIDS: looking ahead

Although the future of HIV science is uncertain, we need to reappraise HIV diversity, pathogenesis and immunity. The AIDS pandemic threatens the success of existing vaccine programs and may

How Do Viral and Host Factors Modulate the Sexual Transmission of HIV? Can Transmission Be Blocked?

A better understanding of sexual transmission, say the authors, will enable more rational design of vaccines and microbicides and potential combinations of the two.

HIV's vagina travelogue.

HIV-1 Transmission, Replication Fitness and Disease Progression

The rapid evolution and association of viral variants having distinct characteristics during different stages of infection, the level of viral burden, and rate of disease progression suggest a role for viral variants in this process.

Defective Virus Drives Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, Persistence, and Pathogenesis

The primary targets for HIV are resting CD4 T lymphocytes that are not permissive to HIV replication unless activated by some external and independent event.

Improving Defences at the Portal of HIV Entry: Mucosal and Innate Immunity

The authors discuss the key scientific issues in mucosal and innate immunity related to immune protection against HIV infection.

Polyclonal B Cell Differentiation and Loss of Gastrointestinal Tract Germinal Centers in the Earliest Stages of HIV-1 Infection

Studying the effects of early HIV infection on human antibody responses, M. Anthony Moody and colleagues find rapid polyclonal B cell differentiation and structural damage to gut-associated lymphoid

Acute HIV revisited: new opportunities for treatment and prevention.

Critical opportunities for HIV treatment and prevention are highlighted by HIV nucleic acid amplification testing to HIV diagnostic testing algorithms so that acute HIV infections can be routinely detected within the first 1-3 weeks of exposure.



A new classification for HIV-1

A new classification system based on co-receptor use is proposed, providing a more accurate description of viral phenotype than the present imprecise and often misleading classification schemes.

Development of an in vitro organ culture model to study transmission of HIV-1 in the female genital tract

Development of an in vitro organ culture model to study transmission of HIV-1 in the female genital tract and its role in women's sexual activity is studied.

Sexual transmission and propagation of SIV and HIV in resting and activated CD4+ T cells.

Both viruses were found to replicate predominantly in CD4(+) T cells at the portal of entry and in lymphoid tissues, and infection was propagated not only in activated and proliferating T cells but also, surprisingly, in resting T cells.

Rapid turnover of plasma virions and CD4 lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection

Treatment of infected patients with ABT-538 causes plasma HIV-1 levels to decrease exponentially and CD4 lymphocyte counts to rise substantially, indicating that replication of HIV- 1 in vivo is continuous and highly productive, driving the rapid turnover ofCD4 lymphocytes.

Viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

Almost complete replacement of wild-type virus in plasma by drug-resistant variants occurs after fourteen days, indicating that HIV-1 viraemia is sustained primarily by a dynamic process involving continuous rounds of de novo virus infection and replication and rapid cell turnover.

Positive selection of HIV-1 cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape variants during primary infection.

Positive selection of HIV-1 proviral sequences encoding variants within a CTL epitope in Nef, a gene product critical for viral pathogenicity, is demonstrated during and after seroconversion.

Identification of a major co-receptor for primary isolates of HIV-1

The principal cofactor for entry mediated by the envelope glycoproteins of primary macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1 is CC-CKR-5, a receptor for the β-chemokines RANTES, Mip-1α and MIP-1β.

Acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

The diagnosis of acute HIV-1 infection requires a high index of clinical suspicion and correct use of specific diagnostic laboratory tests and the potential clinical benefit of early antiretroviral treatment.

Population biology of HIV-1 infection: viral and CD4+ T cell demographics and dynamics in lymphatic tissues.

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    Annual review of immunology
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A model of immune depletion and repopulation based on the limited regenerative capacity of the adult and the uncompensated losses of productively infected cells that treatment stems is presented, which predicts that immune regeneration will be slow, variable, and partial.

Rapid evolution of the neutralizing antibody response to HIV type 1 infection

Plasma virus continually and rapidly evolved to escape neutralization, indicating that neutralizing antibody exerts a level of selective pressure that has been underappreciated based on earlier, less comprehensive characterizations.