Translation is often repressed in cell lines that are exposed to hypoxic conditions (0.5% - 1.5% O2) but this repression requires prolonged exposure (> 16 h). We report here that prolonged exposure to hypoxia results in the depletion of glucose from the media and that the loss of glucose correlates with the shut down in translation. Furthermore, we show that the addition of glucose or reoxygenation restores translation in hypoxic PC3 cells. This indicates that both glucose depletion and hypoxia are required for translational repression. We also show that eIF2alpha phosphorylation is reversed by glucose addition. Moreover, we present data that strongly indicate that eIF2alpha phosphorylation as well as the translational inhibition that occurs when cells are grown under conditions of glucose depletion and hypoxia is pancreatic eIF2alpha kinase (PERK) independent. We believe this is the first report to show that glucose depletion is required for translational repression under hypoxic conditions and that this explains why prolonged exposure to hypoxia is required for this inhibition. Since the physiological conditions that lead to tumor hypoxia would also likely lead to reduced glucose levels, understanding the interplay of glucose and hypoxia in regulating tumor metabolism will provide important information on the growth and development of solid tumors.