Translational principles of deep brain stimulation

@article{Kringelbach2007TranslationalPO,
  title={Translational principles of deep brain stimulation},
  author={Morten L. Kringelbach and Ned Jenkinson and Sarah L. F. Owen and Tipu Z. Aziz},
  journal={Nature Reviews Neuroscience},
  year={2007},
  volume={8},
  pages={623-635}
}
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has shown remarkable therapeutic benefits for patients with otherwise treatment-resistant movement and affective disorders. This technique is not only clinically useful, but it can also provide new insights into fundamental brain functions through direct manipulation of both local and distributed brain networks in many different species. In particular, DBS can be used in conjunction with non-invasive neuroimaging methods such as magnetoencephalography to map the… 
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References

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Blood flow responses to deep brain stimulation of thalamus
TLDR
The increased blood flow at terminal fields of thalamocortical projections suggests that DBS stimulates and does not inactivate projection neurons in VIM thalamus.
Mechanisms of deep brain stimulation: Excitation or inhibition
  • J. Vitek
  • Biology
    Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society
  • 2002
TLDR
This hypothesis would explain the present experimental results, is consistent with excitability profiles of neuronal elements based on their biophysical properties, and fits with more recent models emphasizing the role of altered patterns of neuronal activity in the development of hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders.
Stimulation-induced inhibition of neuronal firing in human subthalamic nucleus
TLDR
The present findings suggest that local HF stimulation inhibits many STN neurons, and the overall effects of DBS stimulation in STN are likely to be inhibition of intrinsic and synaptically mediated activity, and its replacement by regular high-frequency firing.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Development of Demand-Controlled Deep Brain Stimulation with Methods from Stochastic Phase Resetting
TLDR
A first conceptualization is presented suggesting that the nucleus accumbens is a promising target for the standard, that is, permanent high-frequency, DBS in patients with severe and chronic obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
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TLDR
The optimal target for different dystonic disorders remains to be determined, although the globus pallidus internus has currently emerged as the most promising target for dystonia.
Deep brain stimulation for cluster headache
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TLDR
Altering basal ganglia function with GPi DBS reverses the overactivity of certain motor cortical areas present in dystonia.
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus does not increase the striatal dopamine concentration in parkinsonian humans
TLDR
PET data in living parkinsonian humans do not provide evidence for an increased striatal dopamine concentration under effective STN‐DBS, and it is concluded that the modulation of dopaminergic activity does not seem to play a crucial role for the stimulation's mechanisms of action in parkinsonia humans.
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TLDR
The hypothesis of stimulation-induced modulation of pathological network activity as a therapeutic mechanism of DBS is supported after apparently contradictory results showing suppression of activity in the stimulated nucleus, but increased inputs to projection nuclei.
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