Translating the Histone Code

  title={Translating the Histone Code},
  author={Thomas Jenuwein and C. David Allis},
  pages={1074 - 1080}
Chromatin, the physiological template of all eukaryotic genetic information, is subject to a diverse array of posttranslational modifications that largely impinge on histone amino termini, thereby regulating access to the underlying DNA. Distinct histone amino-terminal modifications can generate synergistic or antagonistic interaction affinities for chromatin-associated proteins, which in turn dictate dynamic transitions between transcriptionally active or transcriptionally silent chromatin… 
Synthetic histone code.
The impact of histone post-translational modifications on developmental gene regulation
This review examines the molecular processes regulating site-specific histone acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation with an emphasis on how these processes underpin differentiation-regulated transcription.
[Variations on the topic of the "histone code"].
Histones are the fundamental structural proteins intimately associated with eukaryotic DNA to form a highly ordered and condensed nucleoproteic complex termed chromatin. They are the targets of
The chromatin regulatory code: Beyond a histone code
  • A. Lesne
  • Biology
    The European physical journal. E, Soft matter
  • 2006
The chromatin structure dependence of its translation suggests two alternative modes of transcription initiation regulation, also proposed in the paper by A. Benecke in this issue for interpreting strikingly bimodal micro-array data.
How does the histone code work?
Findings that the structured globular domain of the nucleosome core particle plays a key role regulating chromatin dynamics are reviewed and calls for the re-examination of current models for the epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure.
How does the histone code work ? 1
Findings that the structured globular domain of the nucleosome core particle plays a key role regulating chromatin dynamics are reviewed and calls for the re-examination of current models for the epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure.
The histone code and epigenetic inheritance
By reading the combinatorial and/or sequential histone modifications that constitute the histone code, it may be possible to predict which gene products will be transcribed and thus determine a cell's RNA repertoire and ultimately its proteome, just as reading the DNA code allows us to predict the encoded protein sequence.


The language of covalent histone modifications
It is proposed that distinct histone modifications, on one or more tails, act sequentially or in combination to form a ‘histone code’ that is, read by other proteins to bring about distinct downstream events.
Review: chromatin structural features and targets that regulate transcription.
The nucleosome and chromatin fiber provide the common structural framework for transcriptional control in eukaryotes and the roles of chromatin and chromosomal structural biology in human disease are illuminated.
Histone acetylation and an epigenetic code.
  • B. Turner
  • Biology
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 2000
Recent evidence raises the interesting possibility that an acetylation-based code may operate through both mitosis and meiosis, providing a possible mechanism for germ-line transmission of epigenetic changes.
Histone deacetylases: complex transducers of nuclear signals.
Histone acetylation influences both gene transcription and chromatin assembly after DNA replication and the enzymes that regulate this property of chromatin are likely to play a key role in
Re-SET-ting heterochromatin by histone methyltransferases.
  • T. Jenuwein
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Trends in cell biology
  • 2001
Esa1p Is an Essential Histone Acetyltransferase Required for Cell Cycle Progression
Characterization of ESA1 is reported, an essential gene that is a member of the MYST family that includes two yeast silencing genes, human genes associated with leukemia and with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein, and Drosophila mof, a gene essential for male dosage compensation.
Regulation of chromatin structure by site-specific histone H3 methyltransferases
A functional interdependence of site-specific H3 tail modifications is revealed and a dynamic mechanism for the regulation of higher-order chromatin is suggested.
Epigenetic inheritance of active chromatin after removal of the main transactivator.
The Drosophila Polycomb and trithorax group proteins act through chromosomal elements such as Fab-7 to maintain repressed or active gene expression, respectively. A Fab-7 element is switched from a
Role of protein methylation in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation
In future work, it will be important to develop methods for evaluating the precise roles of protein methylation in the regulation of native genes in physiological settings, e.g. by using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, differentiating cell culture systems, and genetically altered cells and animals.