Implementation findings from a hybrid III implementation-effectiveness trial of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA)
BACKGROUND The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated that lifestyle intervention reduces risk for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. A universal framework for translation of multiple aspects of the DPP intervention, including training, support, and evaluation is needed to enhance treatment fidelity in a variety of settings. PURPOSE This study aims to develop a comprehensive model for diabetes prevention translation using a modified DPP lifestyle intervention. METHODS The DPP lifestyle intervention was adapted to a 12-session group-based program called Group Lifestyle Balance for implementation in the community setting. A model for training and support mirroring that of the DPP was developed for prevention professionals administering the program. The process of training/support and program implementation was evaluated for feasibility and effectiveness using a nonrandomized prospective design in two phases (N=51, Phase 1: 2005-2006; N=42, Phase 2: 2007-2009; data analysis completed 2008-2009). A total of 93 nondiabetic individuals with BMI >or=25 kg/m(2) and the metabolic syndrome or prediabetes participated. Measures were collected at baseline and post-intervention for all and 6 and 12 months post-intervention for Phase 2. RESULTS Significant decreases in weight, waist circumference, and BMI were noted in both phases from baseline. Participants in Phase 2 also demonstrated decreases in total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure that were maintained at 12 months. Average combined weight loss for both groups over the course of the 3-month intervention was 7.4 pounds (3.5% relative loss, p<0.001); 23.8% and 52.2% of those who completed the program reached 7% and 5% weight loss, respectively. More than 80% of those achieving 7% weight loss in the Phase-2 group maintained their weight loss at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS A comprehensive diabetes prevention model for training, intervention delivery, and support was shown to be successful and was effective in reducing diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors in this group of high-risk individuals.