Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics.

  title={Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics.},
  author={Juergen Fritz and Marko Klaus Baller and Hans Peter Lang and Hugo E. Rothuizen and P. Vettiger and Ernst Meyer and H.-J. G{\"u}ntherodt and Ch. Gerber and James K. Gimzewski},
  volume={288 5464},
We report the specific transduction, via surface stress changes, of DNA hybridization and receptor-ligand binding into a direct nanomechanical response of microfabricated cantilevers. Cantilevers in an array were functionalized with a selection of biomolecules. The differential deflection of the cantilevers was found to provide a true molecular recognition signal despite large nonspecific responses of individual cantilevers. Hybridization of complementary oligonucleotides shows that a single… 

Bioassays Based on Molecular Nanomechanics

Current work is focused on developing “universal microarrays” of microcantilever beams for high-throughput multiplexed bioassays, offering a common platform for label-free quantitative analysis of protein-protein binding, DNA hybridization DNA-protein interactions, and in general receptor-ligand interactions.

Cantilever deflection associated with hybridization of monomolecular DNA film

A theoretical model that incorporates the influence of ligand/receptor complex surface distribution and empirical interchain potential is developed to predict the binding-induced deflections and the cantilever bending induced due to hybridization of DNA strands is predicted.

Origin of nanomechanical cantilever motion generated from biomolecular interactions.

  • G. WuH. Ji A. Majumdar
  • Biology, Engineering
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
The origin of motion lies in the interplay between changes in configurational entropy and intermolecular energetics induced by specific biomolecular interactions, and by controlling entropy change during DNA hybridization, the direction of cantilever motion can be manipulated.

Microcantilever biosensors: probing biomolecular interactions at the nanoscale

The focus of the review is given to probing the biomolecular interactions at the solid-liquid interface by probing the cantilever bending for label-free probing nanoscale conformational changes of DNA, protein and poly- mers, and real-time detection of nanomechanical forces from living cells.

Microcantilever Biosensors

A novel method of immobilizing receptors that increases the reproducibility of microcantilever-based biosensing is developed and simultaneous detection of cancer and cardiac markers is demonstrated using cantilever arrays with immobilized receptors.

MOSFET-Embedded Microcantilevers for Measuring Deflection in Biomolecular Sensors

This approach, which offers low noise, high sensitivity, and direct readout, was used to detect specific binding events with biotin and antibodies.

Effect of chain length on nanomechanics of alkanethiol self-assembly

The ability to generate nanomechanical cantilever motion from molecular interactions between analytes and immobilized receptors offers a unique platform for chemical and biological sensor

Piezoresistive Microcantilevers for Biomolecular Force Detection

This paper reports the development of piezoresistive microcantilevers for the detection of biomolecules by the measurement of intermolecular binding forces. The detection of the small forces involved

Membrane-based chemomechanical transducer for the detection of aptamer-protein binding

  • Jun-kyu ChoiJunghoon Lee
  • Engineering, Biology
    2015 28th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
  • 2015
Clear-cut detection of molecular binding using a membrane transducer fabricated with conventional MEMS technology is shown through the implementation of CMR that rejects physical effects such as pressure and temperature, leaving only specific chemical binding responsible for resulting signal.



Adhesion forces between individual ligand-receptor pairs.

Under conditions that allowed only a limited number of molecular pairs to interact, the force required to separate tip and bead was found to be quantized in integer multiples of 160 +/- 20 piconewtons for biotin and 85 +/- 15 piconewstons for iminobiotin.

A cantilever array-based artificial nose

Measuring Surface-Induced Conformational Changes in Proteins

Microfabricated cantilever sensors were used to measure the surface stress induced by protein adsorption onto a gold surface and the change of surface stress upon adsorbed IgG was found to be compressive, whereas that of BSA was tensile.

Direct measurement of the forces between complementary strands of DNA.

Adhesive forces measured between complementary 20-base strands fell into three distinct distributions centered at 1.52, 1.11, and 0.83 nano-newtons, which are associated with the rupture of the interchain interaction between a single pair of molecules involving 20, 16, and 12 base pairs.

Force of single kinesin molecules measured with optical tweezers.

Isometric forces generated by single molecules of the mechanochemical enzyme kinesin were measured with a laser-induced, single-beam optical gradient trap and the ability to measure force parameters of single macromolecules now allows direct testing of molecular models for contractility.

Small cantilevers for force spectroscopy of single molecules

We have used a simple process to fabricate small rectangular cantilevers out of silicon nitride. They have lengths of 9–50 μm, widths of 3–5 μm, and thicknesses of 86 and 102 nm. We have added

Surface stress in the self-assembly of alkanethiols on gold

Surface stress changes and kinetics were measured in situ during the self-assembly of alkanethiols on gold by means of a micromechanical sensor. Self-assembly caused compressive surface stress that

Kinetic measurements of DNA hybridization on an oligonucleotide-immobilized 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance.

A highly sensitive 27-MHz quartz-crystal microbalance was employed to detect hybridization of complementary oligonucleotides in aqueous solution and the obtained results were compared with those obtained by a surface plasmon resonance method using a BIAcore system.

Fiber-optic evanescent wave biosensor for the detection of oligonucleotides.

An automated optical biosensor system based on fluorescence excitation and detection in the evanescent field of a quartz fiber was used to detect 16-mer oligonucleotides in DNA hybridization assays and the net signal decreased by 50% with a signal variation of 2.4% after correction for this signal loss.