Transition from ciliary to flapping mode in a swimming mollusc: flapping flight as a bifurcation in ${\hbox{\it Re}}_\omega$


From observations of swimming of the shell-less pteropod mollusc Clione antarctica we compare swimming velocities achieved by the organism using ciliated surfaces alone with velocities achieved by the same organism using a pair of flapping wings. Flapping dominates locomotion above a swimming Reynolds number Re in the range 5–20. We test the hypothesis that… (More)


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