Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae

  title={Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae},
  author={John E. Losey and Linda S. Rayor and Maureen E. Carter},
Although plants transformed with genetic material from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt ) are generally thought to have negligible impact on non-target organisms, Bt corn plants might represent a risk because most hybrids express the Bt toxin in pollen, and corn pollen is dispersed over at least 60 metres by wind. Corn pollen is deposited on other plants near corn fields and can be ingested by the non-target organisms that consume these plants. In a laboratory assay we found that larvae… 

Field deposition of Bt transgenic corn pollen: lethal effects on the monarch butterfly

It is predicted that the effects of transgenic pollen on D. plexippus may be observed at least 10 m from transgenic field borders, however, the highest larval mortality will likely occur on A. syriaca plants in corn fields or within 3 m of the edge of a transgenic corn field.

Parasitoid behaviour and Bt plants

It is shown here that the behaviour of non-target insects can also play a part in determining how their populations will be affected by Bt plants.

Effects of transgenic Bt corn pollen on a non-target lycaenid butterfly, Pseudozizeeria maha

It is unlikely that pollens from Bt corn expressing Cry1Ab have wide-scaled deleterious effects on non-target P. maha near cornfields, because of low pollen deposition dose on the leaves.

Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis- purified proteins and pollen

Results from the other types of Bt corn suggest that pollen from the Cry1Ab and Cry1F, and experimental Cry9C hybrids, will have no acute effects on monarch butterfly larvae in field settings, and pollen contaminants, an artifact of pollen processing, can dramatically influence larval survival and weight gains and produce spurious results.

Response of Danaus plexippus to pollen of two new Bt corn events via laboratory bioassay

Exposure to pollen of the Cry3Bb1‐Bt expressing hybrid had no negative effects on larval mortality, weight gain, consumption, or development relative to the consumption of Bt‐free corn pollen, and the relevance to the risk that these Bt corn hybrids pose to monarch populations is discussed.

Interaction of field-isolated fungi with monarch butterfly larvae and Bt maize pollen in Iowa

Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) larvae use milkweed plants extensively throughout their development. Milkweed plants in maize fields can be covered with maize pollen during anthesis, and

Biosafety Considerations for Transgenic Insecticidal Plants: Non-Target Herbivores, Detritivores, and Pollinators

Effects on direct consumers are discussed, which will necessitate determination of changes in the ability of non-target organisms to perform ecological functions such as weed suppression, decomposition, and pollination.

Absence of toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis pollen to black swallowtails under field conditions.

It is concluded that Bt pollen of the variety tested is unlikely to affect wild populations of black swallowtails, and the results suggest that at least some potential nontarget effects of the use of transgenic plants may be manageable.

ncreased mortality is predicted of Inachis io larvae caused by Bt-maize pollen in uropean farmland

A potential environmental risk of the field cultivation of insect-resistant (Bt-toxin expressing) transgenic maize (Zea mays) is the consumption of Bt-containing pollen by herbivorous larvae of

Assessing the impact of Cry1Ab-expressing corn pollen on monarch butterfly larvae in field studies

The effects of Bt11 and Mon810 pollen on the survivorship of larvae feeding 14 to 22 days on milkweeds in fields were negligible and survivorship and weight gain were drastically reduced in non-Bt fields treated with λ-cyhalothrin.