Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae

@article{Losey1999TransgenicPH,
  title={Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae},
  author={John E. Losey and Linda S. Rayor and Maureen E. Carter},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1999},
  volume={399},
  pages={214-214}
}
Although plants transformed with genetic material from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt ) are generally thought to have negligible impact on non-target organisms, Bt corn plants might represent a risk because most hybrids express the Bt toxin in pollen, and corn pollen is dispersed over at least 60 metres by wind. Corn pollen is deposited on other plants near corn fields and can be ingested by the non-target organisms that consume these plants. In a laboratory assay we found that larvae… 

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Absence of toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis pollen to black swallowtails under field conditions.

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ncreased mortality is predicted of Inachis io larvae caused by Bt-maize pollen in uropean farmland

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