Transgenic Mice Reveal Unexpected Diversity of On-Off Direction-Selective Retinal Ganglion Cell Subtypes and Brain Structures Involved in Motion Processing

@article{RivlinEtzion2011TransgenicMR,
  title={Transgenic Mice Reveal Unexpected Diversity of On-Off Direction-Selective Retinal Ganglion Cell Subtypes and Brain Structures Involved in Motion Processing},
  author={Michal Rivlin-Etzion and Kaili Zhou and Wei Wei and Justin Elstrott and Phong L. Nguyen and Ben A Barres and Andrew D. Huberman and Marla B. Feller},
  journal={The Journal of Neuroscience},
  year={2011},
  volume={31},
  pages={8760 - 8769}
}
On-Off direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (DSGCs) encode the axis of visual motion. They respond strongly to an object moving in a preferred direction and weakly to an object moving in the opposite, “null,” direction. Historically, On-Off DSGCs were classified into four subtypes according to their directional preference (anterior, posterior, superior, or inferior). Here, we compare two genetically identified populations of On-Off DSGCs: dopamine receptor 4 (DRD4)-DSGCs and thyrotropin… 

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TLDR
It is shown that the preferred directions of DSGCs at around the time of eye opening are not distinctly segregated but rather are diffusely distributed along the four canonical axes, which supports that the significant refinement after eye opening is required for the development of the four functional DSGC subtypes in the rabbit retina.
Projection-Specific Characteristics of Retinal Input to the Brain
TLDR
It is found that both On-Off and On DS RGCs innervate the SC; collectively they constitute nearly 40% of SC-projecting R GCs and exhibit robust projection-specific differences in somatodendritic morphology, cellular excitability, and light-evoked activity.
Spatially displaced excitation contributes to the encoding of interrupted motion by a retinal direction-selective circuit
TLDR
It is reported that On-Off DSGCs have a spatially displaced glutamatergic receptive field along their horizontal preferred-null motion axes, which contributes to DSGC null-direction spiking during interrupted motion trajectories.
Spatially displaced excitation contributes to the encoding of interrupted motion by the retinal direction-selective circuit
TLDR
It is reported that On-Off DSGCs have a spatially displaced glutamatergic receptive field along their preferred-null motion axis, which contributes to DSGC null-direction spiking during interrupted motion trajectories.
On and Off Retinal Circuit Assembly by Divergent Molecular Mechanisms
TLDR
It is shown that signaling between the transmembrane guidance cue semaphorin 6A (Sema6A) and its receptor plexinA2 (PlexA2) regulates dendritic morphology of On but not Off SACs, thereby controlling direction-selective responses to visual stimuli.
Effects of the Concomitant Activation of ON and OFF Retinal Ganglion Cells on the Visual Thalamus: Evidence for an Enhanced Recruitment of GABAergic Cells
TLDR
The increased activation of an inhibitory thalamic network by a high level of unregulated discharge of ON and OFF RGCs might suggest that cross-inhibitory pathways between opposing visual channels are presumably replicated at multiple levels in the visual pathway, thus increasing the filtering ability for non-informative or noisy visual signals.
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