Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in mammals: how good is the evidence?

  title={Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in mammals: how good is the evidence?},
  author={Sanne D. Otterdijk and Karin B. Michels},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
  pages={2457 - 2465}
Epigenetics plays an important role in orchestrating key biologic processes. Epigenetic marks, including DNA methylation, histones, chromatin structure, and noncoding RNAs, are modified throughout life in response to environmental and behavioral influences. With each new generation, DNA methylation patterns are erased in gametes and reset after fertilization, probably to prevent these epigenetic marks from being transferred from parents to their offspring. However, some recent animal studies… 

A Review on Epigenetic Inheritance of Experiences in Humans.

The present review looks at intergenerational and transgenerational inheritance in humans, (both father and mother) in response to diet, exposure to chemicals, stress, exercise, and disease status.

Do Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance and Immune System Development Share Common Epigenetic Processes?

This review draws from studies on transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, immune system development and function, high-throughput epigenetics tools to study those phenomena, and relevant clinical trials to focus on their significance and deeper understanding for future research, therapeutic developments, and various applications.

The (not so) Controversial Role of DNA Methylation in Epigenetic Inheritance Across Generations

This work reviews the current literature on the potential role of DNA methylation for epigenetic inheritance across generations in mammals with a focus on the dual occurrence of global genomic de-methylation first in pre-implantation embryos and subsequently in primordial germ cells of mammals.

Natural cryptic variation in epigenetic modulation of an embryonic gene regulatory network

It is found that starvation-induced developmental diapause triggers transmission of epigenetic memory that affects the specification of the endoderm for multiple generations, demonstrating that early life history and cryptic epigenetic factors can impart transgenerational effects that shape embryonic development.

Transgenerational inheritance of longevity: Theoretical framework and empirical evidence

This review provides data of epidemiological and experimental studies showing the possibility of transgenerational inheritance of life expectancy and longevity-associated traits in several generations.

Epigenetic inheritance across multiple generations




Germline DNA Demethylation Dynamics and Imprint Erasure Through 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine

It is demonstrated that erasure of CpG methylation in PGCs occurs via conversion to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), driven by high levels of TET1 and TET2, which suggest that demethylation can occur by replication-coupled dilution, although active mechanisms cannot be excluded.

Reprogramming DNA methylation in the mammalian life cycle: building and breaking epigenetic barriers

Advances in understanding of natural epigenetic reprogramming are beginning to aid enhancement of experimental reprograming in which the role of potential mechanisms can be investigated in vitro, and insights into in vitro repprogramming techniques may aid the understanding of epigeneticReprogramming in the germline.

Resistance of IAPs to methylation reprogramming may provide a mechanism for epigenetic inheritance in the mouse

Genome‐wide epigenetic reprogramming by demethylation occurs in early mouse embryos and primordial germ cells, which can result in the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic states of IAPs, which could lead to heritable epimutations of neighbouring genes through influencing their transcriptional states.

Transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic states at the murine AxinFu allele occurs after maternal and paternal transmission

It is found that the methylation state of AxinFu in mature sperm reflects the methylated state of the allele in the somatic tissue of the animal, suggesting that it does not undergo epigenetic reprogramming during gametogenesis, and it is shown that epigenetic inheritance is influenced by strain background.

Germ-line epigenetic modification of the murine Avy allele by nutritional supplementation

This study demonstrates that a specific mammalian gene can be subjected to germ-line epigenetic change, and that the altered state is retained through the epigenetic resetting that takes place in gametogenesis and embryogenesis.

In utero undernourishment perturbs the adult sperm methylome and intergenerational metabolism

Prenatal undernutrition can compromise male germline epigenetic reprogramming and thus permanently alter DNA methylation in the sperm of adult offspring at regions resistant to zygotic reprograming, as well as contribute to the intergenerational transmission of environmentally induced disease.

Fetal metabolic programming and epigenetic modifications: a systems biology approach

In conclusion, intrauterine growth restriction is most likely to be associated with the induction of persistent changes in tissue structure and functionality, and a maternal obesogenic environment is most probably associated with metabolic reprogramming of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as future risk of metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, and insulin resistance.

The role of Tet3 DNA dioxygenase in epigenetic reprogramming by oocytes

Tet3-mediated DNA hydroxylation is involved in epigenetic reprogramming of the zygotic paternal DNA following natural fertilization and may also contribute to somatic cell nuclear reprograming during animal cloning.

Epigenetic inheritance at the agouti locus in the mouse

It is demonstrated here that this maternal epigenetic effect is not the result of a maternally contributed environment, and results from incomplete erasure of an epigenetic modification when a silenced Avy allele is passed through the female germ line, with consequent inheritance of the epigenetic modified.