Transforming growth factor-beta expression in human placenta and placental bed in third trimester normal pregnancy, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction.

Normal human pregnancy depends on physiological transformation of spiral arteries by invasive trophoblasts. Preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are associated with impaired trophoblast invasion and spiral artery transformation. Recent studies have suggested that transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta3 is overexpressed in the placenta of PE… CONTINUE READING