Transforming growth factor beta: tumor suppressor or promoter? Are host immune cells the answer?

  title={Transforming growth factor beta: tumor suppressor or promoter? Are host immune cells the answer?},
  author={Li Yang and Harold L. Moses},
  journal={Cancer research},
  volume={68 22},
Therapies targeting transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling using neutralizing antibodies and small molecular inhibitors are in multiple clinical trails. However, TGFbeta is known to work as both a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter, and current knowledge does not provide sufficient information on what factors mediate this switch in function and when this switch occurs. Recent advances in multiple disciplines suggest that immune cells from the tumor host may provide the answer. 

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