Transformational leadership, initiating structure, and substitutes for leadership: a longitudinal study of research and development project team performance.

  title={Transformational leadership, initiating structure, and substitutes for leadership: a longitudinal study of research and development project team performance.},
  author={Robert T. Keller},
  journal={The Journal of applied psychology},
  volume={91 1},
  • R. Keller
  • Published 2006
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The Journal of applied psychology
Transformational leadership, initiating structure, and selected substitutes for leadership were studied as longitudinal predictors of performance in 118 research and development (R&D) project teams from 5 firms. As hypothesized, transformational leadership predicted 1-year-later technical quality, schedule performance, and cost performance and 5-year-later profitability and speed to market. Initiating structure predicted all the performance measures. The substitutes of subordinate ability and… Expand

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