Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient

@article{Kates2012TransformationalAW,
  title={Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient},
  author={Robert W. Kates and William Riebsame Travis and Thomas J. Wilbanks},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
  year={2012},
  volume={109},
  pages={7156 - 7161}
}
All human–environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much… 

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