For a review involving NHC transition metal catalysis and organocatalysis using water, see
- S. S. Sohn, J. W. Bode, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed
- J. Am. Chem. Soc.,
N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) promote the transfer hydrogenation of various activated C=C, C=N, and N=N bonds with water as the proton source. The NHCs act as reducing reagents to be converted into their oxides. A detailed reaction mechanism is proposed on the basis of deuterium-labeling experiments.