Transesophageal echocardiography in the surgical management of renal cell carcinoma with intracardiac extension.


Renal cell carcinomas may extend into the vena cava and the tumor thrombus occasionally involves the right atrium. The operative approach depends upon precise preoperative and intraoperative staging and thrombus localization. We report a case of renal cell carcinoma with complete inferior vena caval and hepatic vein occlusion with tumor extension into the… (More)