Transesophageal echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular function during apnea testing for brain death.


The effects of apnea testing-induced respiratory acidosis on left ventricular function (LVF) are still controversial. The aim of the study was to assess LVF during apnea testing using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Twenty consecutive patients suspected of brain death, hemodynamically stable, and considered as potential organ donors were prospectively studied. A 20-min apnea test was performed after obtaining a PaCO2 > 35 mmHg and 20 min of FIO2 1 ventilation. LVF was assessed using TEE with a CFM 750 (Diasonic) connected to a 5 MHz probe. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricle end-diastolic and systolic area (LVEDA, LVESA), and LVF assessed by fractional area changes (FAC), systolic wall motion (SWM) scores, and blood gases were recorded at baseline, and after 5, 10, 15, and 20 min of apnea testing. In 19 patients, no spontaneous respiratory movement occurred during the standard 20-min period. In one patient (No. 15), the apnea test had to be stopped after 10 min because of hypoxia. HR, LVEDA, LVESA, and SWM were not significantly modified during the study. There was a progressive statistically significant decrease in MAP during apnea (from 77 +/- 10 to 63 +/- 11 mmHg), associated with a statistically significant increase in FAC at 20 min (from 48 +/- 13 to 56 +/- 8%). PaCO2 progressively rose (from 40 +/- 3 to 95 +/- 11 mmHg), associated with a decrease in pH (from 7.42 +/- 0.06 to 7.09 +/- 0.08). At the same time, PaO2 decreased slightly in all patients, but values remained well above hypoxic levels, except for one patient. Despite severe respiratory acidosis the increase in FAC suggests that apnea testing is well tolerated for brain death assessment.


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@article{Orliaguet1994TransesophagealEA, title={Transesophageal echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular function during apnea testing for brain death.}, author={Gilles A. Orliaguet and P Catoire and Ngai Liu and Laurent Beydon and F. Bonnet}, journal={Transplantation}, year={1994}, volume={58 6}, pages={655-8} }