The mechanisms and control of transepithelial inorganic sulfate (Si) transport by primary cultures of chick renal proximal tubule monolayers in Ussing chambers were determined. The competitive anion, S2 O 3 2- (5 mM), reduced both unidirectional reabsorptive and secretory fluxes and net Si reabsorption with no effect on electrophysiological properties. The carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor ethoxzolamide decreased net Si reabsorption approximately 45%. CAII protein and activity were detected in isolated chick proximal tubules by immunoblots and biochemical assay, respectively. Cortisol reduced net Si reabsorption up to approximately 50% in a concentration-dependent manner. Thyroid hormone increased net Si reabsorption threefold in 24 h, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) acutely stimulated net Si reabsorption approximately 45%. These data indicate that CA participates in avian proximal tubule active transepithelial Si reabsorption, which cortisol directly inhibits and T3 and PTH directly stimulate.