Transdifferentiation in Holothurian Gut Regeneration

  title={Transdifferentiation in Holothurian Gut Regeneration},
  author={Vladimir S. Mashanov and Igor Yu. Dolmatov and Thomas Heinzeller},
  journal={The Biological Bulletin},
  pages={184 - 193}
It has recently been shown that the whole spectrum of cell types constituting a multicellular organism can be generated from stem cells. Our study provides an example of an alternative mechanism of tissue repair. Injection of distilled water into the coelomic cavity of the holothurian Eupentacta fraudatrix results in the loss of the whole digestive tract, except the cloaca. The new gut reforms from two separate rudiments. One rudiment appears at the anterior end of the body and extends… 

Cell dedifferentiation and epithelial to mesenchymal transitions during intestinal regeneration in H. glaberrima

It is strongly suggested that the dedifferentiating mesothelium provides the initial source of cells for the formation of the intestinal rudiment, and the mechanism of epithelial to mesenchymal transition provides many of the connective tissue cells found in the regenerating intestine.

Multipotent epithelial cells in the process of regeneration and asexual reproduction in colonial tunicates

In colonial tunicates two systems support the flexibility of tissue remodeling during regeneration and asexual reproduction; dedifferentiation of epithelial cells and epithelial transformation of coelomic free cells.

Regeneration of the digestive system in the crinoid Himerometra robustipinna occurs by transdifferentiation of neurosecretory-like cells

It is concluded that juxtaligamental cells play a major role in gut regeneration in H. robustipinna.

Anterior regeneration after fission in the holothurian Cladolabes schmeltzii (Dendrochirotida: Holothuroidea)

The regeneration of the anterior portion of the body after fission was studied in the holothurian Cladolabes schmeltzii using electron microscopy methods and concluded to occur through morphallactic rearrangements of the remaining parts of organs.

Small coelomic epithelial cells of the starfish Asterias rubens L. that are able to proliferate in vivo and in vitro

The morphology of small epitheliocytes, their proliferative activity in vivo and in vitro and the ability to migrate suggest that they possess certain properties characteristic of stem cells.

Regeneration of the digestive tract of an anterior-eviscerating sea cucumber, Eupentacta quinquesemita, and the involvement of mesenchymal–epithelial transition in digestive tube formation

The process of regeneration of the anterior portion of the gut in an anteriorly eviscerating species is elucidated, and the involvement of MET and fusion of cavities/lumens in Regeneration of the digestive tube is suggested.

Expression of stem cell factors in the adult sea cucumber digestive tube

This work studies homeostatic cell turnover in the sea cucumber digestive tube, the organ with high tissue plasticity even in adult animals and finds significant differences among the five anatomical gut regions in cell renewal dynamics and stem factor expression.

Radial glial cells play a key role in echinoderm neural regeneration

It is demonstrated that radial glial cells of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima react to injury by dedifferentiation and are the main source of new cells in the regenerating radial nerve cord in these animals.

Coelomocyte replenishment in adult Asterias rubens: the possible ways

The origin of cells involved in regeneration in echinoderms remains an open question and the irregular distribution of small cells on the surface and within the coelomic epithelium was demonstrated and the origin of small undifferentiated cells and large agranulocytes from the coELomocyte replenishment was suggested.

Gut Regeneration in Holothurians: A Snapshot of Recent Developments

These recent studies on visceral regeneration in holothurians provide a unique view that complements regeneration studies in other animal phyla, which are mainly focused on whole-animal regeneration or appendage regeneration.



Functional morphology of the developing alimentary canal in the holothurian Eupentacta fraudatrix (Holothuroidea, Dendrochirota)

Development of the digestive tract of the holothurian Eupentacta fraudatrix was examined using light and transmission electron microscopy and found that mitotic figures are encountered among nonspecialized cells of the gut primordium.

Regeneration in the sea cucumber Leptosynapta. I. The process of regeneration.

  • G. N. Smith
  • Biology
    The Journal of experimental zoology
  • 1971
The process of regeneration of a lost posterior by an anterior piece of the sea cucumber Leptosynapta crassipatina (Apoda) is described and Histological study revealed low mitotic activity in all parts of the oral complex.

Regeneration of digestive tract in the pentactulae of the far-eastern holothurian Eupentacta fraudatrix (Holothuroidea, Dendrochirota)

The regeneration of the digestive system in 5-month-old pentactulae of the holothurian Eupentacta fraudatrix was examined using light and transmission electron microscopy and a hypothesis is advanced that the pattern of gut regeneration in the pentactula is a recapitulation of the ancestral mechanism of gut Regeneration in holothsurians.

Muscle regeneration in the holothurian Stichopus japonicus

The migration of coelomic epithelial cells into the damaged LMBs and their myogenic transformation are the basic mechanism of holothurian muscle regeneration.

Cellular mechanisms of intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber, Holothuria glaberrima Selenka (Holothuroidea:Echinodermata).

This study provides evidence that the process of new organ formation in holothurians can be described as an intermediate process showing characteristics of both epimorphic and morphallactic phenomena.

Gut regeneration by morphallaxis in the sea cucumber Leptosynapta clarki (Heding, 1928)

It was concluded that gut regeneration in L. clarki is accomplished by redifferentiation of stomach tissues directly into intestinal tissues without the formation of a blastema.


The earliest macroscopic indication of the regenerating digestive system takes the form of a continuous, rod-like thickening of the free margin of the mesentery connecting the healed anterior end and the cloaca.

Microscopic overview of crinoid regeneration

The overall process of arm regeneration in the comatulid Antedon mediterranea can be described on the whole as a typical blastemal regeneration in which new structures develop from migratory pluripotential, actively proliferating cells in the presence of presumptive regulatory factors.

Regeneration of the Digestive Tube in the Holothurian Apostichopus japonicusafter Evisceration

A TEM study of regeneration of the intestine in the Far Eastern trepang, the holothurian Apostichopus japonicus, after evisceration, found the migration of epithelium into the area of regeneration takes place through a solid cellular layer, without breaking of the cell contacts.

Issues in stem cell plasticity

The most serious task “still remains to be soloved ‐ how to detect, harvest and culture stem cells for therapy of certain diseases”.