Transdermal delivery of nalbuphine and nalbuphine pivalate from hydrogels by passive diffusion and iontophoresis.

@article{Fang2001TransdermalDO,
  title={Transdermal delivery of nalbuphine and nalbuphine pivalate from hydrogels by passive diffusion and iontophoresis.},
  author={J. Y. Fang and K. C. J. Sung and Oliver Yoa-Pu Hu and Hong Yuan Chen},
  journal={Arzneimittel-Forschung},
  year={2001},
  volume={51 5},
  pages={408-13}
}
The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro transdermal permeation of nalbuphine hydrochloride (CAS 23277-43-2) (NA) and nalbuphine pivalate (NAP), a novel prodrug of NA, from different hydrogel formulations under passive diffusion as well as iontophoresis. Various concentrations of polymers, including polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were used in the hydrogel formulations. The passive permeation rate of NA was affected by the polymer concentrations… CONTINUE READING