Transdermal Nicotine for Mildly to Moderately Active Ulcerative Colitis

@article{Sandborn1997TransdermalNF,
  title={Transdermal Nicotine for Mildly to Moderately Active Ulcerative Colitis},
  author={William J. Sandborn and William J. Tremaine and Kenneth P. Offord and George M. Lawson and Brett Petersen and Kenneth P Batts and Ivana T. Croghan and Lowell C. Dale and Darrell Schroeder and Richard D. Hurt},
  journal={Annals of Internal Medicine},
  year={1997},
  volume={126},
  pages={364-371}
}
Ulcerative colitis is primarily a disease of nonsmokers [1-4]. Nonsmokers who have ulcerative colitis and begin smoking may go into remission [5]. These observations led to uncontrolled trials of nicotine administered through chewing gum [6] or a transdermal patch [7]. A controlled trial of 15 to 25 mg of transdermal nicotine for active ulcerative colitis reported that 49% of patients responded to nicotine, whereas only 24% responded to placebo [8]. A subsequent controlled trial of 15 mg of… 
Transdermal nicotine for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis.
TLDR
The results of this review provide evidence that transdermal nicotine is superior to placebo for the induction of remission in ulcerative colitis, and a meta-analysis of five trials showed a statistically significant benefit for nicotine treatment.
The Efficacy Of Transdermal Nicotine In Conjunction With Conventional Therapies In Active Ulcerative Colitis
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The hypothesis states that using nicotine as an adjunct to standard medical therapy (i.e. azulfidine and steroids) in active disease would be more efficacious than standard therapy alone in inducing remission in 6 weeks.
Transdermal Nicotine as a Treatment Option for Ulcerative Colitis: A Review
TLDR
It was found that transdermal nicotine in combination with conventional therapy was more beneficial than individual treatment with either and further controlled studies evaluating the appropriate dosage for remission and maintenance treatment needs to be done.
A randomized trial of nicotine enemas for active ulcerative colitis.
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    British journal of clinical pharmacology
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TLDR
The introduction of transdermal nicotine in the market made it possible to assess the potential therapeutic role of nicotine in a more extensive way and yielded encouraging but inconclusive results.
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In this relatively small study of patients with active Crohn's colitis, 6 mg nicotine enemas appeared to be of clinical benefit in most patients and well tolerated and safe.
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Transdermal nicotine does not seem to have a clear short-term beneficial effect in primary sclerosing cholangitis treated with ursodeoxycholic acid, and no significant differences were observed between the two treatment modalities after 8 weeks.
Preliminary Observations of Oral Nicotine Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Open‐Label Phase I‐Ii Study of Tolerance
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Oral nicotine is a safe potential treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, but there is considerable variation in tolerance, and the effect on disease activity was also noted.
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TLDR
The addition of transdermal nicotine to conventional maintenance therapy improves symptoms in patients with ulcerative colitis.
Transdermal nicotine as maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis.
TLDR
Transdermal nicotine alone was no better than placebo in the maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis, and premature withdrawal due to side effects was more common in the nicotine group.
Transdermal nicotine compared with oral prednisolone therapy for active ulcerative colitis.
TLDR
In patients with active ulcerative colitis, nicotine alone appeared to be of only very modest benefit in acute colitis and was not as effective as 15 mg of prednisolone daily.
Testing nicotine gum for ulcerative colitis patients. Experience with single-patient trials.
TLDR
It is concluded that a randomized trial for an individual patient is a useful method for evaluating treatment regimens for ulcerative colitis and that nicotine gum may be effective therapy for individual patients with ulceratives colitis who demonstrate an objective response with few adverse effects.
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TLDR
It is concluded that oral 5-ASA administered in a dosage of 4.8 g per day is effective therapy, at least in the short term, for mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis.
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TLDR
The relative risk of ulcerative colitis among former smokers increased in proportion to the cumulative number of cigarettes smoked before the onset of disease, suggesting a causal relationship between this exposure and disease occurrence.
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TLDR
It is reported that cigarette smokers were less likely to have ulcerative colitis than nonsmokers and that signs and symptoms of the disease disappered when the woman started smoking and reappeared when she stopped.
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TLDR
It is suggested that smoking exerts protective effect against the development of ulcerative colitis.
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TLDR
Jones and his colleagues at King's College Hospital have shown that hosiery exerting a pressure of 20mm Hg at the ankle was significantly less effective than that exerting pressures of 30-50 mm Hg, both in patients with superficial varicose veins and in those with postphlebitic limbs.
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