Transdermal Drug Delivery: Clinical Considerations for the Obstetrician–Gynecologist

  title={Transdermal Drug Delivery: Clinical Considerations for the Obstetrician–Gynecologist},
  author={Russell O. Potts and Rogerio A. Lobo},
  journal={Obstetrics \& Gynecology},
  • R. Potts, R. Lobo
  • Published 1 May 2005
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Obstetrics & Gynecology
INTRODUCTION: The first transdermal drug delivery system was introduced in the United States over 20 years ago. Created as an alternative route of administration to improve patient compliance as well as to reduce side effects, the transdermal delivery of drugs now represents a $1.5 to $2 billion market and is growing rapidly. DATA SOURCES: The medical literature from 1980 to 2005 was searched using the PubMed search engine. The search term was “transdermal,” limited to human clinical trials… 


Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) provides a means to sustain drug release as well as reduce the intensity of action and thus reduce the side effects associated with its oral therapy.

Transdermal hormonal contraception: benefits and risks.

  • R. Burkman
  • Medicine, Biology
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • 2007


An overview of skin permeation pathways, types of tra nsdermal drug delivery system, methods of preparation with different methods of evaluation, and the recent advancement in transdermalDrug delivery, which includes Transfersomes, Magnetophoresis, Controlled Heat Aided Drug Delivery System, Laser Radiation, Medicated Tattoos, Laser radiation is provided.

Transdermal contraception methods: today’s patches and new options on the horizon

  • A. Nelson
  • Medicine
    Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • 2015
Two new contraceptive patches with lower estrogen levels have been developed and extensively tested and the results of their clinical trials are described, including information about efficacy, bleeding patterns and tolerability.


This review covers the introduction of trans cutaneous drug delivery system, anatomy of skin, principles of transcutaneous permeation, numerous elements of pads, approaches of pad, unleash dynamics of drug from pad, benefits and drawbacks of pad.

Transdermal delivery of combined hormonal contraception: a review of the current literature

The transdermal patch provides an alternative to COCs for women who want autonomy and the benefit of not needing to take a pill daily, with similar efficacy and tolerability.

Patches: A Novel approach for development of topical drug delivery system

Developing new drug delivery system will improves the therapeutic efficacy and safety of drug by more precise (i.e. site specific), special and temporal placement within the body there by reducing both the size and number of doses.

Transdermal contraceptive patches

Clinical studies have demonstrated that these two new patch systems may be attractive alternative forms of contraception, since ovulation inhibition has been achieved in all subjects who wear the transdermal patch for 3 weeks, replacing it on a weekly basis.


Objective: Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MPA) using a transdermal drug delivery system for contraception by passive diffusion is limited by the skin barrier properties. Penetration enhancers such as



Transdermal contraception: evaluation of three transdermal norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol doses in a randomized, multicenter, dose-response study.

The 20-cm(2) patch (Ortho Evra) provided ovulation suppression, cycle control, and safety similar to that of Ortho-Cyclen, with significantly better compliance.

Evaluation of contraceptive efficacy and cycle control of a transdermal contraceptive patch vs an oral contraceptive: a randomized controlled trial.

The contraceptive patch is comparable to a combination OC in contraceptive efficacy and cycle control and Compliance was better with the weekly contraceptive patch than with the OC.

Randomized comparative trial of nicotine polacrilex, a transdermal patch, nasal spray, and an inhaler.

It is found that, despite low compliance with the recommended dose of the spray and inhaler and differences in product ratings, overall, there are no notable differences between the products in their effects on withdrawal discomfort, perceived helpfulness, or general efficacy.

The effect of site of application on the transcutaneous absorption of 17‐&bgr; estradiol from a transdermal delivery system (Climara)

The buttocks seem to be an acceptable site for the application for this once‐weekly 17‐&bgr; estradiol transdermal delivery system, and this application site may provide an advantage in women who experience menopausal symptoms at the end of the week.

Transdermal Drug Transport and Metabolism. I. Comparison of In Vitro and In Vivo Results

Using excised human skin and tissue grafted to athymic mice, the in vitro and in vivo delivery and metabolism of a salicylate diester were compared and suggest that in vitro results may overestimate metabolism because of increased enzymatic activity and/or decreased capillary removal.

Pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and saliva output during transdermal and extended-release oral oxybutynin administration in healthy subjects.

Lower N-desethyloxybutynin plasma concentration and greater saliva output during transdermal treatment correspond to the reported low incidence of dry mouth in patients with overactive bladder and minimizes metabolism to N- Desethyloxy butynin compared with extended-release oral administration.

Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.

The use of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) increases the risk of stroke, decreases therisk of hip fracture, and does not affect CHD incidence in postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy over an average of 6.8 years, indicating no overall benefit.

Markedly elevated levels of estrone sulfate after long-term oral, but not transdermal, administration of estradiol in postmenopausal women

There was only a small increase in E1S levels after long-term oral estrogen treatment, and this difference may be attributed to the higher dosage of oral E2 that is required because of the low bioavailability compared with the transdermal dosages.