Phenethyl isothiocyanate: a comprehensive review of anti-cancer mechanisms.
Temporal growth of tumor xenografts in mice on a control diet was compared to mice supplemented daily with 3 µmol/g of the cancer preventive compound phenethyl isothiocyanate. Phenethyl isothiocyanate decreased the rate of tumor growth. The effects of phenethyl isothiocyanate on tumor growth were examined by RNAseq to elucidate molecular changes that may contribute to tumor growth suppression. Bio-informatic analysis of differentially expressed genes identified changes in inflammation and extracellular matrix pathways that were modulated by treatment with phenethyl isothiocyanate. Specific gene expression changes in these pathways included up-regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, fibronectin, thyroxine degradation enzyme, and down regulation of integrin beta 6. In addition, feeding phenethyl isothiocyanate induced alternative splicing of gene variants. This study represents the first use of RNAseq to analyze tumors from animals consuming dietary phenethyl isothiocyanate and to identify potential molecular signatures that may explain the cancer protective effect of this compound.