To understand the mechanistic basis of local innate and adaptive immunity against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) at the molecular level, we examined the gene transcription profile of tracheal epithelial layers 3 d after infection of chickens with an attenuated IBV-Massachusetts strain. Results suggested that the transcription levels of 365 genes were either upregulated or downregulated (2-fold and higher) after IBV infection. Among the upregulated 250 genes, 25 were directly immune-related genes. These upregulated immune response genes included TLR2, TLR3, interferon-induced antiviral genes (Mx), and genes responsible for cytotoxic T cell killing such as Fas antigen and granzyme-A. Overall, a diversity of innate immunity and helper T cell type 1 (Th1)-biased adaptive immunity are activated in the host's early defense against IBV invasion, and they are responsible for the rapid clearance of virus from the local infection.