Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain

  title={Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain},
  author={Mark Hallett},
  • M. Hallett
  • Published 13 July 2000
  • Biology, Psychology
  • Nature
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly developing as a powerful, non-invasive tool for studying the human brain. A pulsed magnetic field creates current flow in the brain and can temporarily excite or inhibit specific areas. TMS of motor cortex can produce a muscle twitch or block movement; TMS of occipital cortex can produce visual phosphenes or scotomas. TMS can also alter the functioning of the brain beyond the time of stimulation, offering potential for therapy. 

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

TMS has been approved by the FDA for several psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder; however, despite some clinical successes, the mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effects are not well understood.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Primer

The Answer of the Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Brain Desordes: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Clinical Practice

Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a new technique capable of stimulating the brain with some advantages over existing ones, and is considered of low quality.

Transcranial static magnetic field stimulation of the human motor cortex

It is found that transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) can reduce the excitability of the motor cortex for a period that outlasts the time of the application of the magnetic field.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex: A Complementary Approach to Investigate Human Long-Term Memory

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can noninvasively and focally stimulate the cerebral cortex, inducing a transient and safe interruption of brain function, and seems to be a good complementary approach to more traditional neuroimaging and electroencephalographic techniques for the investigation of the working brain.

Neuroimaging of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Effects on the Brain

Brain imaging can tell us a lot about how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) affects the brain, and it can also help us guide and deliver TMS in more precise ways. For example, one can use stru

[Transcranial magnetic stimulation].

Cort cortical mapping may be achieved by combining TMS to other neurophysiological/ neuroimaging techniques and has great potential both as an investigational and as a therapeutical tool in Neurology and Psychiatry.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and epilepsy

Noninvasive Brain Stimulation

Motor evoked potentials.

  • Y. SohnM. Hallett
  • Biology, Psychology
    Physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics of North America
  • 2004



Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation during Positron Emission Tomography: A New Method for Studying Connectivity of the Human Cerebral Cortex

It is suggested that the combined TMS/PET technique offers an objective tool for assessing the state of functional connectivity without requiring the subject to engage in any specific behavior.

Depression of motor cortex excitability by low‐frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation

Spread of excitation, which may be a warning sign for seizures, occurred in one subject and was not accompanied by increased MEP amplitude, suggesting that spread ofexcitation and amplitude changes are different phenomena and also indicating the need for adequate monitoring even with stimulations at low frequencies.

Responses to rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex.

Modulation of the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) produced in the target muscle during rTMS showed a pattern of inhibitory and excitatory effects which depended on the rT MS frequency and intensity, which suggests that the spread might be due to the breakdown of inhibitORY connections or the recruitment of excited pathways, whereas the post-stimulation facilitation may beDue to a transient increase in the efficacy of excitatories.

Modulation of muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during the acquisition of new fine motor skills.

Trans transcranial magnetic stimulation is used to study the role of plastic changes of the human motor system in the acquisition of new fine motor skills and the effect of increased hand use without specific skill learning in subjects who played the piano at will for 2 h each day but who were not taught the five-finger exercise.

Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex in writer’s cramp

In some patients 1-Hz rTMS can reinforce deficient intracortical inhibition and may improve handwriting temporarily and support the notion that reduced intracordical inhibition plays a part in the pathophysiology of focal dystonia.

Suppression of visual perception by magnetic coil stimulation of human occipital cortex.

Changes of cortical motor area size during immobilization.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has a beneficial effect on bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease.

Evidence is provided that 5 Hz rTMS over M1 can improve bradykinesia in PD patients beyond the time of magnetic stimulation, and real-rTMSover the contralateral M1 caused a significant decrease in total movement time without affecting end-point accuracy.