TMS is a technology with much promise for understanding brain function in health and disease. This chapter has reviewed the physics and safety of this new tool. Much basic work remains to be done in order to understand exactly how TMS affects neurons, and the roles that intensity, frequency, and location have on brain activity. Recent work combining TMS with imaging is showing the method for future advances. In the area of TS, TMS has already had a significant impact; 3 studies have hinted that TS patients have a deficient inhibitory system. Other investigators are exploring whether TMS might be used in a therapeutic manner to alter the behavior of dysfunctional circuits. These areas of applying TMS to understanding and perhaps treating TS show much promise. Nonetheless, a great deal of basic work is likely needed before TMS can be fully used as a research tool or treatment modality for TS.