Transcranial Current Brain Stimulation (tCS): Models and Technologies

  title={Transcranial Current Brain Stimulation (tCS): Models and Technologies},
  author={Giulio Ruffini and Fabrice Wendling and Isabelle Merlet and Behnam Molaee-Ardekani and Abeye Mekonnen and Ricardo Salvador and Aureli Soria-Frisch and Carles Grau and S. Dunne and Pedro Cavaleiro Miranda},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering},
In this paper, we provide a broad overview of models and technologies pertaining to transcranial current brain stimulation (tCS), a family of related noninvasive techniques including direct current (tDCS), alternating current (tACS), and random noise current stimulation (tRNS). These techniques are based on the delivery of weak currents through the scalp (with electrode current intensity to area ratios of about 0.3-5 A/m2) at low frequencies (typically <; 1 kHz) resulting in weak electric… 

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Modern tDCS was developed following rigorous neuro-physiological testing in animals and humans, with behavioral and clinical trials based on specific, mechanistic hypotheses derived from this canonical work facilitated in serving as a scientific anchor for the broader (re)discovery of non-invasive electrical stimulation.

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Evaluation of the electric field in the brain during transcranial direct current stimulation: A sensitivity analysis

  • L. SantosM. Martinho P. Miranda
  • Biology
    2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)
  • 2016
The finite element method is used to compute the E-field induced in a realistic human head model for two electrode montages targeting the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and results show that the field decreases with increasing scalp, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and grey matter (GM) conductivities, while the opposite is observed for the skull and white matter conductivities.



Transcranial direct current stimulation: State of the art 2008

Optimized multi-electrode stimulation increases focality and intensity at target

If a target location and stimulation orientation can be defined by the clinician, then the proposed technique is superior in terms of both focality and intensity as compared to previous solutions and is thus expected to translate into improved patient safety and increased clinical efficacy.

Modeling the current distribution during transcranial direct current stimulation

Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES – tDCS; tRNS, tACS) methods

  • W. Paulus
  • Biology
    Neuropsychological rehabilitation
  • 2011
Weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with a homogenous DC field at intensities of around 1 mA induces long-lasting changes in the brain. tDCS can be used to manipulate brain

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Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Estimation of the Electric Field and of the Current Density in an Anatomical Human Head Model

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