Transcranial Current Brain Stimulation (tCS): Models and Technologies

@article{Ruffini2013TranscranialCB,
  title={Transcranial Current Brain Stimulation (tCS): Models and Technologies},
  author={Giulio Ruffini and Fabrice Wendling and Isabelle Merlet and Behnam Molaee-Ardekani and Abeye Mekonnen and Ricardo Salvador and Aureli Soria-Frisch and Carles Grau and S. Dunne and Pedro Cavaleiro Miranda},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering},
  year={2013},
  volume={21},
  pages={333-345}
}
In this paper, we provide a broad overview of models and technologies pertaining to transcranial current brain stimulation (tCS), a family of related noninvasive techniques including direct current (tDCS), alternating current (tACS), and random noise current stimulation (tRNS). These techniques are based on the delivery of weak currents through the scalp (with electrode current intensity to area ratios of about 0.3-5 A/m2) at low frequencies (typically <; 1 kHz) resulting in weak electric… 

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