Transamidation by transglutaminase 2 transforms S100A11 calgranulin into a procatabolic cytokine for chondrocytes.

@article{Cecil2008TransamidationBT,
  title={Transamidation by transglutaminase 2 transforms S100A11 calgranulin into a procatabolic cytokine for chondrocytes.},
  author={Denise L. Cecil and Robert A. Terkeltaub},
  journal={Journal of immunology},
  year={2008},
  volume={180 12},
  pages={8378-85}
}
In osteoarthritis (OA), low-grade joint inflammation promotes altered chondrocyte differentiation and cartilage catabolism. S100/calgranulins share conserved calcium-binding EF-hand domains, associate noncovalently as homodimers and heterodimers, and are secreted and bind receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Chondrocyte RAGE expression and S100A11 release are stimulated by IL-1beta in vitro and increase in OA cartilage in situ. Exogenous S100A11 stimulates chondrocyte… CONTINUE READING

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cium - dependent tetramer formation of S 100 A 8 and S 100 A 9 is essential for biological activity

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