Transactivation of the human retinoid X receptor by organotins: use of site-directed mutagenesis to identify critical amino acid residues for organotin-induced transactivation.

Organotins, such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), may disrupt endocrine activity in mammals arising from their ability to act as ligands for the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). The structure of TBT is completely different from that of 9-cis retinoic acid (9cRA), an endogenous RXR ligand… (More)