Trans-endocytosis of CD80 and CD86: a molecular basis for the cell-extrinsic function of CTLA-4.


Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is an essential negative regulator of T cell immune responses whose mechanism of action is the subject of debate. CTLA-4 shares two ligands (CD80 and CD86) with a stimulatory receptor, CD28. Here, we show that CTLA-4 can capture its ligands from opposing cells by a process of trans-endocytosis. After removal, these costimulatory ligands are degraded inside CTLA-4-expressing cells, resulting in impaired costimulation via CD28. Acquisition of CD86 from antigen-presenting cells is stimulated by T cell receptor engagement and observed in vitro and in vivo. These data reveal a mechanism of immune regulation in which CTLA-4 acts as an effector molecule to inhibit CD28 costimulation by the cell-extrinsic depletion of ligands, accounting for many of the known features of the CD28-CTLA-4 system.

DOI: 10.1126/science.1202947
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@article{Qureshi2011TransendocytosisOC, title={Trans-endocytosis of CD80 and CD86: a molecular basis for the cell-extrinsic function of CTLA-4.}, author={Omar S. Qureshi and Yong Zheng and Kyoko Nakamura and Kesley Attridge and Claire N. Manzotti and Emily M. Schmidt and Jennifer H. E. Baker and Louisa E. Jeffery and Satdip Kaur and Zoe Briggs and Tie Hou and Clare E Futter and Graham Anderson and Lucy S. K. Walker and David M Sansom}, journal={Science}, year={2011}, volume={332 6029}, pages={600-3} }