Trans-Sahara migrants select flight altitudes to minimize energy costs rather than water loss

Abstract

Meteorological conditions influence strongly the energy and water budget of birds. By adjusting their flights spatially and temporally with respect to these conditions, birds can reduce their energy expenditure and water loss considerably. By radar, we quantified songbird migration across the western Sahara in spring and autumn. There autumn migrants face… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s00265-009-0758-x

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Cite this paper

@article{Schmaljohann2009TransSaharaMS, title={Trans-Sahara migrants select flight altitudes to minimize energy costs rather than water loss}, author={Heiko Schmaljohann and Felix Liechti and Bruno Bruderer}, journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology}, year={2009}, volume={63}, pages={1609-1619} }