Trans-Sahara migrants select flight altitudes to minimize energy costs rather than water loss

@article{Schmaljohann2009TransSaharaMS,
  title={Trans-Sahara migrants select flight altitudes to minimize energy costs rather than water loss},
  author={Heiko Schmaljohann and Felix Liechti and Bruno Bruderer},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
  year={2009},
  volume={63},
  pages={1609-1619}
}
Meteorological conditions influence strongly the energy and water budget of birds. By adjusting their flights spatially and temporally with respect to these conditions, birds can reduce their energy expenditure and water loss considerably. By radar, we quantified songbird migration across the western Sahara in spring and autumn. There autumn migrants face the trade-off between (a) favorable winds combined with hot and dry air at low altitudes and (b) unfavorable winds combined with humid and… CONTINUE READING
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