Trans Fat Diet Induces Abdominal Obesity and Changes in Insulin Sensitivity in Monkeys

  title={Trans Fat Diet Induces Abdominal Obesity and Changes in Insulin Sensitivity in Monkeys},
  author={Kylie Kavanagh and Kate L. Jones and Janet K. Sawyer and Kathryn L. Kelley and J. Jeffrey Carr and Janice D. Wagner and Lawrence L. Rudel},
Objective: There is conflicting evidence about the propensity of trans fatty acids (TFAs) to cause obesity and insulin resistance. The effect of moderately high intake of dietary monounsaturated TFAs on body composition and indices of glucose metabolism was evaluated to determine any pro‐diabetic effect in the absence of weight gain. 
The Role of Dietary Fat in Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes
Dietary fat has a role in both the etiology and prevention of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and the role of dietary fat is controversial as fatty acids act as signaling molecules in a variety of metabolic pathways.
Trans fatty acids and weight gain
There is limited but consistent evidence that increased TFA consumption may result in a small additional weight gain, and data from a primate model suggest that TFA may have a greater adipogenic effect than cis monounsaturated fatty acids.
Trans fatty acids, insulin resistance and diabetes
It is concluded that there is limited evidence for a weak association at high TFA intakes, but very little convincing evidence that habitual exposure as part of a standard western diet has a significant contribution to risk of diabetes or insulin resistance.
Association between plasma trans‐fatty acid concentrations and diabetes in a nationally representative sample of US adults
The associations of objectively measured plasma TFA concentrations with diabetes in a large population‐based study among US adults are examined.
Regulators of Mitochondrial Quality Control Differs in Subcutaneous Fat of Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obese Monkeys
This study aimed to document the first spontaneous animal model of MHO and MUO and differences in SQ adipose tissue and underlying differences in the ability of subcutaneous fat to respond to nutrient excess.
A comparison of effects of lard and hydrogenated vegetable shortening on the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats
It is concluded that lard-based high-fat diets accentuate the increase in weight gain and the development of obesity and insulin resistance more than hydrogenated vegetable-shortening diets.
Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes.
Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids: a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women
The adverse effect of dietary TFA on cardiovascular disease risk involves induction of dyslipidemia, and perhaps body fat, whereas weight gain-independent accumulation of ectopic fat could not be identified as a contributory factor during short-term intake.


High- versus low-fat diets in human diseases
  • T. Sanders
  • Medicine
    Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care
  • 2003
A modest reduction in fat intake to 30-35% energy, with the bulk of carbohydrates being derived from complex carbohydrates from unrefined sources, would appear to be the best option for the prevention of obesity and cardiovascular disease.
Diet and risk of Type II diabetes: the role of types of fat and carbohydrate
Dietary recommendations to prevent Type II diabetes should focus more on the quality of fat and carbohydrate in the diet than quantity alone, in addition to balancing total energy intake with expenditure to avoid overweight and obesity.
Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in adipose tissue.
This issue of the JCI reports that obese adipose tissue is characterized by macrophage infiltration and that these macrophages are an important source of inflammation in this tissue.
A high-trans fatty acid diet and insulin sensitivity in young healthy women.
Intake of a Diet High in Trans Monounsaturated Fatty Acids or Saturated Fatty Acids: Effects on postprandial insulinemia and glycemia in obese patients with NIDDM
In the presence of unchanged glycemia, both dietary trans fatty acids and SFAs induce an increase in postprandial insulinemia in obese patients with NIDDM.
Effects of diets enriched in saturated (palmitic), monounsaturated (oleic), or trans (elaidic) fatty acids on insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation in healthy adults.
Dietary fatty acid composition significantly influenced fat oxidation but did not impact insulin sensitivity or secretion in lean individuals, and overweight individuals were more susceptible to developing insulin resistance on high-saturated fat diets.
Diet composition and the risk of type 2 diabetes: epidemiological and clinical evidence.
New emphasis on prevention by multiple lifestyle modifications, including moderate changes in the composition of the habitual diet, might limit the dramatic increase in incidence of type 2 diabetes envisaged worldwide.
Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance.
It is proposed that obesity-related insulin resistance is, at least in part, a chronic inflammatory disease initiated in adipose tissue, and that macrophage-related inflammatory activities may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-induced insulin resistance.