Sex steroid hormones and sex hormone binding globulin levels, CYP17 MSP AI (-34T:C) and CYP19 codon 39 (Trp:Arg) variants in children with developmental stuttering.
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to explore whether parents of CWS reported the presence of ADHD symptoms that would warrant a referral to a psychologist to rule out the disorder. This study also aimed to describe the characteristics of the sample in terms of gender, family history of stuttering, presence of neurological impairment, concomitant diagnoses, and stuttering severity. Finally, this study sought to explore the possible statistical relations among these same variables. METHODS Participants were 36 school-age CWS (32 males and 4 females) between the ages of 3.9 and 17.2 years (M=10.4, SD=4.0). Parent responses on the ADHD Rating Scale (Power et al., 2001) were collected via a retrospective chart review. RESULTS For this sample 58% (n=21), of the participants met criteria for needing referral for additional evaluation for symptoms related to ADHD. A strong positive relation (r=.720, p<.001) was found between a reported family history of recovered stuttering and the presence of a concomitant diagnosis. CONCLUSION The results of the present study demonstrate the need for further training and education for SLPs working with CWS regarding ADHD. EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES The reader will be able to (1) describe the main characteristics of ADHD, (2) discuss the evidence suggesting a possible relationship between ADHD and stuttering and (3) discuss how ADHD characteristics could impact clinical outcomes for CWS.