Trail Making Test, Part B as a Measure of Executive Control: Validation Using a Set-Switching Paradigm

  title={Trail Making Test, Part B as a Measure of Executive Control: Validation Using a Set-Switching Paradigm},
  author={Katherine D. Arbuthnott and Janis Frank},
  journal={Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology},
  pages={518 - 528}
Recent controversy surrounds the use of the Trail Making Test as a measure of cognitive flexibility, given that the Trail Making Test, Part B (TMT-B) also differs from Part A (TMT-A) in factors of motor control and perceptual complexity. The present study compared performance in the TMT and a set-switching task in order to test the assumption that cognitive flexibility is captured in TMT-B performance. Set-switching tasks have low motor and perceptual selection demands, and therefore provide a… 

Emphasizing speed or accuracy in an eye-tracking version of the Trail-Making-Test: Towards experimental diagnostics for decomposing executive functions

The Trail-Making-Test (TMT) is one of the most widely used neuropsychological tests for assessing executive functions, the brain functions underlying cognitively controlled thought and action.

Construct validity of the Trail Making Test: Role of task-switching, working memory, inhibition/interference control, and visuomotor abilities

The results suggest that T MT-A requires mainly visuoperceptual abilities, TMT-B reflects primarily working memory and secondarily task-switching ability, while B-A minimizes visu operceptual and working memory demands, providing a relatively pure indicator of executive control abilities.

Construct validity of the Trail Making Test , 1 Construct validity of the Trail Making Test : role of task-switching , working memory , inhibition / interference control and visuo-motor abilities

word count: 176 Manuscript word count: 4.165 Sánchez-Cubillo, Construct validity of the Trail Making Test, 2 ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to clarify which cognitive mechanisms underlie Trail

The Trail Making Test, Part B: Cognitive Flexibility or Ability to Maintain Set?

Preliminary support is provided for TMT Part B performance being more sensitive to cognitive flexibility than ability to maintain set (operationalized as Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST], percent perseverative errors) than abilityto maintain set.

Psychometric Characteristics and Practice Effects of the Brunswick Trail Making Test

It is concluded that training effects of perceptual-motor and cognitive skills are highly specific and implications of these findings for cognitive neurorehabilitation are discussed.

A Dissociation of Attention, Executive Function and Reaction to Difficulty: Development of the MindPulse Test, a Novel Digital Neuropsychological Test for Precise Quantification of Perceptual-Motor Decision-Making Processes

The ability to measure four axes of the speed-precision trade-off inherent in a subject’s fundamental decision making: perceptual-motor speed, executive speed, subject accuracy, and reaction to difficulty is provided.

Component Processes and Neural Substrates of Set-shifting

Set-shifting was significantly associated with the volume of the right rostral middle frontal gyrus, however, after controlling for component processes no significant associations were found between set-sh shifting and gray matter volumes.

Lowering the Floor on Trail Making Test Part B: Psychometric Evidence for a New Scoring Metric.

  • S. CorreiaD. Ahern S. Deoni
  • Psychology
    Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
  • 2015
A new TMT-B efficiency metric is proposed designed to capture clinically relevant performance variability below the standard administration floor and has concurrent validity, permits statistical analysis of performances that fall below the test floor, and captures clinicallyrelevant performance variability missed by alternative methods.

The Trail Making Test

Normative tables according to significant factors such as age, education level, and sex were created, and measures of visual scanning, graphomotor speed, and visuomotor processing speed were more related to the performance of the TMT-A score, while working memory and inhibition control were mainly associated with the T MT-B and derived TMT scores.

The Use of Variants of the Trail Making Test in Serial Assessment

The construct validity of three variants of the Trail Making Test was investigated using 162 undergraduate psychology students. During a 3-week period, the Trail Making Test of the Delis—Kaplan



Construct validity in the Trail Making Test: what makes Part B harder?

The results indicate that Part B is more difficult than Part A not only because it is a more difficult cognitive task, but also because of its increased demands in motor speed and visual search.

Executive control in set switching: residual switch cost and task-set inhibition.

  • K. ArbuthnottJ. Frank
  • Psychology
    Canadian journal of experimental psychology = Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale
  • 2000
The results yielded significant switch cost only for alternating tasks, in both response times and errors resulting from performance of the wrong task, suggesting that task-set inhibition is an important executive control process.

The differential contribution of mental tracking, cognitive flexibility, visual search, and motor speed to performance on parts A and B of the Trail Making Test.

  • S. Crowe
  • Psychology
    Journal of clinical psychology
  • 1998
The analysis indicates that, in a nonclinical sample, the TMT measures a number of different functions and the observation of impaired performance must be further investigated to ascertain the specific nature of these deficits in order to guide rehabilitation and management planning.

Costs of a predictible switch between simple cognitive tasks.

In an investigation of task-set reconfiguration, participants switched between 2 tasks on every 2nd trial in 5 experiments and on every 4th trial in a final experiment. The tasks were to classify

The Trail Making Test A and B: A Technical Note on Structural Nonequivalence

The interpretive assumptions that Trail Making B differs from Trail Making A only in terms of the cognitive skills needed to complete the test and the implicit interpretive bias toward minimizing the motor component of the tests were challenged in this technical note.

Construct validity of neuropsychological tests of conceptual and attentional abilities.

Principal components analyses showed that PASAT, VSAT, and TMT-B defined an attention factor and that CAT and WCST defined a conceptual factor.

Reconfiguration of processing mode prior to task performance.

Results indicate a time-effort consuming process that operates after a task shift, precedes task execution, and presumably reflects the advance reconfiguration of processing mode.

Relationships between parts A and B of the Trail Making Test.

Two measures of relationship between Parts A and B of the Trail Making Test were examined in a large, acute rehabilitation population and found to be correlated highly with intelligence and severity of impairment and, to a lesser degree, with age, education, and memory functioning.

Effect of physical layout in performance of the Trail Making Test.

The Trail Making Test, a commonly used test instrument in neuropsychological evaluation, consists of2 parts ( A and B). The difference in times to complete the 2 parts of the test is usually

Random Generation and the Executive Control of Working Memory

It is predicted that a task involving repeated switching of categories will interfere with generation, despite being predictable and having a low memory load, and the implications for the analysis of executive processes are discussed.