Trafficking within migrant smuggling operations: Are underage transporters ‘victims’ or ‘perpetrators’?

  title={Trafficking within migrant smuggling operations: Are underage transporters ‘victims’ or ‘perpetrators’?},
  author={Wayne Palmer and Antje Missbach},
  journal={Asian and Pacific Migration Journal},
  pages={287 - 307}
This article looks at a case of a juvenile transporter, who ferried asylum seekers from Indonesia to Australia on several occasions, but was arrested and sentenced for his involvement on the last attempt. The reasons for exploring this case in detail are twofold. First, the use of Indonesian child labor in migrant smuggling operations is a prevalent practice. Evidence of this is particularly obvious in the large number of Indonesian children imprisoned or otherwise detained in Australia for… 

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