The 2002 food crisis in southern Africa, which was exacerbated by the reluctance of the countries to accept genetically modified (GM) maize food aid, highlighted the need for the region to address the trade-related issues raised by biotechnology, especially given the move toward formation of a free trade area (FTA) by 2008. One feature of the FTA will be the free movement of agricultural products across borders. This chapter attempts to highlight the key issues related to biotechnology and trade, particularly as they relate to the agricultural sector of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. The questions asked include whether there are opportunities for the SADC given that trade in agricultural commodities plays an important role in the economies of these countries. Furthermore, attempts are made to address some of the concerns surrounding biotechnology and biosafety in the SADC.