Tracing Origins: Ilustrado Nationalism and the Racial Science of Migration Waves

  title={Tracing Origins: Ilustrado Nationalism and the Racial Science of Migration Waves},
  author={F. Aguilar},
  journal={The Journal of Asian Studies},
  pages={605 - 637}
  • F. Aguilar
  • Published 2005
  • History
  • The Journal of Asian Studies
History was the key to identity for the pioneers of Filipino nationhood in the late nineteenth century. John Schumacher has recounted the struggle by which the youthful Europeanized originators of Filipino nationhood—the ilustrados, literally “enlightened”—reacted to the “chauvinism common to members of governing races” (1973, 191–220). Amid the onslaught of Spanish colonial racism, these educated youths 
Postcolonial Fissures and the Contingent Nation: An Antinationalist Critique of Philippine Historiography
This article examines instances in Philippine historiography where nationalism, as a unitary end, has been used to elide and obscure class difference. It begins with a partial explanation of theExpand
Gregorio Sancianco, Colonial Tribute, and Social Identities: On the Cusp of Filipino Nationalist Consciousness
Gregorio Sancianco, the author of El Progreso de Filipinas (1881), is an ephemeral figure in Philippine history. Although somewhat known for his defense of the native against charges of indolence,Expand
Romancing Tropicality: Ilustrado Portraits of the Climate in the Late Nineteenth Century
In contrast to the literature’s dominant focus on Western constructions of tropicality, this article explores representations of the tropics by the colonized, specifically the climatologicalExpand
‘The salvational currents of emigration’: Racial theories and social disputes in the Philippines at the end of the nineteenth century
This article analyses the changing significance of racial theories in the writings of Spanish emigrants in the late nineteenth century Philippines. Works by Antonio Cañamaque, Pablo FecedExpand
Hegemonic Tool?: Nationalism in Philippine history textbooks, 1900–2000
Abstract:This study analyzes fifteen history textbooks published from 1905 to 2000 to identify patterns of nationalist discourses relating to: (1) membership in the nation; (2) origins of the people;Expand
The Pacto de Sangre in the Late Nineteenth-Century Nationalist Emplotment of Philippine History
The Pacto de Sangre (Blood Compact), despite its crucial significance in Filipino conceptions of history, is seldom interrogated in Philippine historiography. The event that happened in Bohol inExpand
Horacio de la Costa, Foreign Missionaries, and the Quest for Filipinization: The Church in the Age of Decolonization
Abstract:Fr. Horacio de la Costa became the first Filipino Superior of the Jesuit Province in the Philippines (1964–1970) at a time when the Filipinization of religious orders was intenselyExpand
Creolism and the Liberal Nineteenth Century
This chapter situates the life of Jose Rizal. First, it examines the origins of Philippine liberalism in the creole intellectuals of the late eighteenth century/early nineteenth century. It explainsExpand
Shared Spaces of Transnational Transit: Filipino Gay Tourists, Labour Migrants, and the Borders of Class Difference
Between 2006 and 2008, I conducted autoethnographic research in what I refer to as Manila's ‘‘bright lights'' gay scene. As part of that research, I collected travel stories from young, urban, middleExpand
The Solution of the Enigma in El Filibusterismo
This chapter examines Rizal’s second, more incendiary novel, El Filibusterismo. If the Noli was an experiment in liberal reformism, the Fili is an experiment in revolution. Using the character ofExpand


Nationhood and Transborder Labor Migrations: The Late Twentieth Century from a Late Nineteenth-Century Perspective
This paper seeks to provide a perspective on contemporary Philippine labor migrations by viewing this phenomenon in light of analogous transborder movements of workers in the late nineteenth andExpand
History of Civilizations
Fernand Braudel rejected a narrow focus on Western warfare, diplomacy and power politics, and opened up economic and social history to influences from anthropology, sociology, geography, psychologyExpand
White Love and Other Events in Filipino History
In this wide-ranging cultural and political history of Filipinos and the Philippines, Vicente L. Rafael examines the period from the onset of U.S. colonialism in 1898 to the emergence of a FilipinoExpand
Civility and Savagery: Social Identity in Tai States
This is a book about social differentiation and distinction in one of the ethnically and politically most complex regions of the world, dealing with crucial issues in currently renewed debates onExpand
Race, nation, class : ambiguous identities
Forty years after the defeat of Nazism, and twenty years after the great wave of decolonization, how is it that racism remains a growing phenomenon? What are the special characteristics ofExpand
A Nation Aborted: Rizal, American Hegemony, and Philippine Nationalism
"A Nation Aborted" is about recovering a lost history and vision, an invitation to reread Rizal, rethink his project, and revision Philippine nationalism. It traces the trajectory of the PhilippineExpand
NATIONALISM AND ARCHAEOLOGY: On the Constructions of Nations and the Reconstructions of the Remote Past
▪ Abstract Nationalism requires the elaboration of a real or invented remote past. This review considers how archaeological data are manipulated for nationalist purposes, and it discusses theExpand
Clash of Spirits: The History of Power and Sugar Planter Hegemony on a Visayan Island
This text illuminates the oral traditions of the Philippines and the convergence of capitalism and the indigenous spirit world. The author examines the social relations, cultural meanings andExpand
The "Racial" Economy of Science: Toward a Democratic Future
Preface Introduction: Eurocentric Scientific Illiteracy--A Challenge for the World Community Sandra Harding I. Early Non-Western Scientific Traditions Poverties and Triumphs of the Chinese ScientificExpand
One Hundred Million Frenchmen: The “Assimilation” Theory in French Colonial Policy
During World War II, Jacques Stern, a former French Minister of Colonies, wrote almost lyrically of the “patient labor of assimilation” by which France had been “consolidating the moral and materialExpand