Toxin from Skin of Frogs of the Genus Atelopus: Differentiation from Dendrobatid Toxins

@article{Fuhrman1969ToxinFS,
  title={Toxin from Skin of Frogs of the Genus Atelopus: Differentiation from Dendrobatid Toxins},
  author={Frederick A. Fuhrman and Geraldine J. Fuhrman and Harry S. Mosher},
  journal={Science},
  year={1969},
  volume={165},
  pages={1376 - 1377}
}
A potent, dialyzable toxin (atelopidtoxin) occurs in the skin of frogs of the genus Atelopus. A concentrate of atelopidtoxin from Atelopus zeteki has an LD50 in mice of 16 micrograms per kilogram. It differs from batrachotoxin, tetrodotoxin, and saxitoxin, the only known nonprotein substances of greater toxicity, as well as from all toxins previously isolated from amphibia. 
First report on toxins in the Panamanian toads Atelopus limosus, A. glyphus and A. certus.
TLDR
Major toxins from skin extracts of 18 specimens of six Atelopus toad species collected in Panama were analyzed and A. certus was suggested to contain a water-soluble toxin other than tetrodotoxin. Expand
Tetrodotoxin: Occurrence in atelopid frogs of Costa Rica.
TLDR
The potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin, which has previously been found in puffer fish of the order Tetraordontiformes, a goby, and the California newt, has now been identified in the skins of frogs of the genus Atelopus from Costa Rica. Expand
Potent Neurotoxins: Tetrodotoxin, Chiriquitoxin, and Zetekitoxin from Atelopus Frogs in Central America
A mixture of the potent neurotoxins tetrodotoxin (TTX) and chiriquitoxin (CHTX) was isolated from the skins of the male and the eggs of the female frog Atelopus chiriquiensis from Costa Rica.Expand
Chemistry and pharmacology of skin toxins from the frog Atelopus zeteki (atelopidtoxin: zetekitoxin).
TLDR
Zetekitoxins were obtained in purified form from skins of the Panamanian frog Atelopus zeteki by a series of steps which used preparative free-flowing electrophoresis in the last stages, and were resistant to toxin obtained from their own skins. Expand
Occurrence of tetrodotoxin and its analogues in the Brazilian frog Brachycephalus ephippium (Anura: Brachycephalidae).
TLDR
Brachycephalus ephippium is a diurnal frog, that shows aposematic colouration and inhabits Atlantic forest leaf litter in south-eastern Brazil, that is confirmed as a fourth family of anurans containing TTX. Expand
Natural Toxins as Tools in Neurophysiology
Snake venoms (bungarotoxin, cobratoxin), frog poisons (histrionicotoxin, batrachotoxin and atelopidtoxin), and fish toxins (tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin) permit selective inhibition of receptors and ionExpand
Further classification of skin alkaloids from neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), with a general survey of toxic/noxious substances in the amphibia.
TLDR
Cutaneous granular glands are a shared character of adult amphibians, including caecilians, and are thought to be the source of most biologically active compounds in amphibian skin, which clearly prove the defensive value of these diverse metabolites. Expand
Toxins and pharmacologically active compounds from species of the family Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura).
TLDR
Overall, the bioactive secretions of this family of anurans may have antimicrobial, protease inhibitor and anticancer properties, as well as being active at the neuromuscular level. Expand
Geographic range expansion of tetrodotoxin in amphibians – First record in Atelopus hoogmoedi from the Guiana Shield
&NA; For the first time, alcohol extracts of Atelopus hoogmoedi from the Guiana Shield in Suriname and Guyana were analyzed for the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and of its analogues by highExpand
Comparison of the effects of atelopidtoxin with those of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin and batrachotoxin on beating of cultured chick heart cells.
TLDR
Spontaneously beating heart cells cultured from 8- to 9-day-old chick embryos were used to determine the effects of four animal toxins, and batrachotoxin rapidly and completely stopped beating of the heart cells in concentrations as low as 0·07 mg per 1. Expand
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