Toxin from Skin of Frogs of the Genus Atelopus: Differentiation from Dendrobatid Toxins

  title={Toxin from Skin of Frogs of the Genus Atelopus: Differentiation from Dendrobatid Toxins},
  author={Frederick A. Fuhrman and Geraldine J. Fuhrman and Harry S. Mosher},
  pages={1376 - 1377}
A potent, dialyzable toxin (atelopidtoxin) occurs in the skin of frogs of the genus Atelopus. A concentrate of atelopidtoxin from Atelopus zeteki has an LD50 in mice of 16 micrograms per kilogram. It differs from batrachotoxin, tetrodotoxin, and saxitoxin, the only known nonprotein substances of greater toxicity, as well as from all toxins previously isolated from amphibia. 
First report on toxins in the Panamanian toads Atelopus limosus, A. glyphus and A. certus.
Major toxins from skin extracts of 18 specimens of six Atelopus toad species collected in Panama were analyzed and A. certus was suggested to contain a water-soluble toxin other than tetrodotoxin. Expand
Tetrodotoxin: Occurrence in atelopid frogs of Costa Rica.
The potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin, which has previously been found in puffer fish of the order Tetraordontiformes, a goby, and the California newt, has now been identified in the skins of frogs of the genus Atelopus from Costa Rica. Expand
Potent Neurotoxins: Tetrodotoxin, Chiriquitoxin, and Zetekitoxin from Atelopus Frogs in Central America
A mixture of the potent neurotoxins tetrodotoxin (TTX) and chiriquitoxin (CHTX) was isolated from the skins of the male and the eggs of the female frog Atelopus chiriquiensis from Costa Rica.Expand
Chemistry and pharmacology of skin toxins from the frog Atelopus zeteki (atelopidtoxin: zetekitoxin).
Zetekitoxins were obtained in purified form from skins of the Panamanian frog Atelopus zeteki by a series of steps which used preparative free-flowing electrophoresis in the last stages, and were resistant to toxin obtained from their own skins. Expand
Occurrence of tetrodotoxin and its analogues in the Brazilian frog Brachycephalus ephippium (Anura: Brachycephalidae).
Brachycephalus ephippium is a diurnal frog, that shows aposematic colouration and inhabits Atlantic forest leaf litter in south-eastern Brazil, that is confirmed as a fourth family of anurans containing TTX. Expand
Natural Toxins as Tools in Neurophysiology
Snake venoms (bungarotoxin, cobratoxin), frog poisons (histrionicotoxin, batrachotoxin and atelopidtoxin), and fish toxins (tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin) permit selective inhibition of receptors and ionExpand
Further classification of skin alkaloids from neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), with a general survey of toxic/noxious substances in the amphibia.
Cutaneous granular glands are a shared character of adult amphibians, including caecilians, and are thought to be the source of most biologically active compounds in amphibian skin, which clearly prove the defensive value of these diverse metabolites. Expand
Toxins and pharmacologically active compounds from species of the family Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura).
Overall, the bioactive secretions of this family of anurans may have antimicrobial, protease inhibitor and anticancer properties, as well as being active at the neuromuscular level. Expand
Geographic range expansion of tetrodotoxin in amphibians – First record in Atelopus hoogmoedi from the Guiana Shield
&NA; For the first time, alcohol extracts of Atelopus hoogmoedi from the Guiana Shield in Suriname and Guyana were analyzed for the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and of its analogues by highExpand
Comparison of the effects of atelopidtoxin with those of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin and batrachotoxin on beating of cultured chick heart cells.
Spontaneously beating heart cells cultured from 8- to 9-day-old chick embryos were used to determine the effects of four animal toxins, and batrachotoxin rapidly and completely stopped beating of the heart cells in concentrations as low as 0·07 mg per 1. Expand


Toxicity of Panamanian Poison Frogs (Dendrobates): Some Biological and Chemical Aspects
A small Neotropical frog, Dendrobates pumilio, undergoes interpopulational variation in color, degree of toxicity, size, and habits, which may result from isolation and chance restriction of original heterozygosity, with subsequent selection acting on different and greatly limited mixtures of alleles. Expand
The purification and characterization of the poison produced by Gonyaulax catenella in axenic culture.
The paralytic poison produced by the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax catenella grown in axenic culture has been isolated in pure form and indicates that it is very similar if not indentical to the poison isolated from toxic Alaska butter clams and California sea mussels. Expand
The skin of some South American amphibians belonging to the genus Leptodactylus contains remarkable amounts of imidazolealkylamines and two imidazo- c -pyridine derivatives hitherto unknown in nature: spinaceamine and 6-methylspinaceamine. Expand
The circus movement (entrapped circuit wave) hypothesis and atrial flutter.
Excerpt In the half century of its existence, the circus movement hypothesis has been accepted and rejected, ignored and misunderstood. There seems to be some revival of interest in it now, but eve...
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